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Ayodhya

(A) Ayodhya - Greatness (Page 1)
(B) Ayodhya - from Valmiki Ramayana (Page 2 - This Page)
(C) Ayodhya - from Ayodhya Mahatmyam (Page 3)
(D) Ayodhya - Places to see (Page 4)

(B) Ayodhya - from Valmiki Ramayana:

(B.1) Sage Valmiki getting divine inspiration:

Sage Valmiki and hunter Rishi Valmiki Sage Valmiki with Lava and KushaQualities of Sri Rama: In the opening chapter of Valmiki Ramayana, sage Valmiki asks sage Narada about the existence of a person with the following qualities:
1. Gunavan: Who is Virtuous
2. Viryavan: Who is Valorous
3. Dharmagya: Who is the knower of Dharma
4. Krtagya: Who is the doer of Good Deeds (according to Dharma)
5. Satyavakya: Who is the speaker of Truth
6. Dridhavrata: Who is firm in his Vows
7. Catritrena Yukta: Who by Character is united (with Dharma)
8. Sarvabhuteshu Hitah: Who is disposed towards the Welfare of all beings
9. Vidvan: Who is Learned
10. Samartha: Who is Capable (in upholding Dharma)
11. Priyadarshana: Who has a Graceful and Pleasant appearance
12. Aatmavan: Who is Self-Composed
13. Jitakrodha: Who has conquered Anger
14. Dyutiman: Who is Effulgent (filled with the Effulgence of Aatman)
15. Anasuyaka: Who is not Envious
16. Bibhyati Devah: Whom even the Devas Fear

Sage Narada mentions about Sri Rama and tells about his life in brief.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 1)

Sage Valmiki getting divine inspiration: Later sage Valmiki gets a divine inspiration when be goes to river Tamasa. He sees two Krauncha birds in union. A hunter suddenly appears and kills the male bird leaving the female bird wailing in separation. The sage curses the hunter, but that curse comes out in a beautiful poetic meter. He keeps on pondering over that throughout the day.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 2 to 3)

Sage Valmiki composing Ramayana: Then Lord Brahma appears to him and tells him to compose the life of Sri Rama in a poetic meter. Lord Brahma imparts yogic power to sage Valmiki to see all the incidents of the life of Sri Rama.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 2 to 3)

Lava and Kusha singing Ramayana: When the great epic was composed, sage Valmiki imparts it to Lava and Kusha and teaches them to sing it in their beautiful melodious voice. Lava and Kusha sings the Valmiki Ramayana before the sages and holy men. They become moved by that song. Sri Rama hears about Lava and Kusha and calls them in his palace at Ayodhya. Lava and Kusha sings the Ramayana before Sri Rama in the court. Sri Rama also becomes moved by it.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 4)

(B.2) About Ayodhya:

Sri RamaSituated in Koshala kingdom: There was a great kingdom named Koshala which was situated on the bank of river Sarayu and was very prosperous. Ayodhya was situated in it.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 5)

Bank of river Sarayu: The Koshala kingdom of which Ayodhya is a part was situated on the bank of river Sarayu.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 5)

Created by Manu himself: Manu, the king of the Manavas, himself created this city (of Ayodhya).
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 5)

Ruled by king Dasharatha: Dasharatha made Ayodhya his abode as Indra made heaven his abode.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 5)

Very glorious and prosperous: Koshala kingdom was endowed with abundant Dhana (Wealth) and Dhanya (Foodgrains). The city of Ayodhya situated within the Koshala kingdom was renowned in the world. The city shone with royal highways which were filled with flowers and made moist with waters. The city was surrounded with gateways and archways. The city was surrounded by gardens, had palaces studded with gems and well-constructed houses. The city was full with rice grains and water tasted like sugarcane juice.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 5)

Unconquerable city: The city of Ayodhya was protected by fort walls and moats. It was also fortified up to two yojanas outside the city. True to its name it was A-Yodhya, the Unconquerable city.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 5 & 6)

People were happy, prosperous and of good character: All the people were happy, prosperous and of good character.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 6)

(B.3) Sri Rama incarnating in Ayodhya:

Sri Rama King Dashartha performing Putrakameshti Yagna Child RamaKing Dasharatha performing Ashwamedha and Putrakameshthi Yagnas: To get a son, king Dashartha performs the Ashwamedha Yagna followed by the Putrakameshthi Yagna on the northern bank of river Sarayu. Sage Vasishtha presides over the arrangements of the yagna. Sage Rishyashringa presides over the ritual of the yagna. Dashartha invites many great kings in that yagna. Some of them were: King Janaka of Mithila, King of Kashi, King of Kekaya, King Romapada of Anga, King Bhanumanta of Koshala, King Praptigya of Magadha etc.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 12 to 16)

Devas praying to Lord Vishnu to incarnate: During the Putrakamesthi yagna the devas appear on the firmament to obtain their shares of the yagna. Lord Brahma as well as Lord Vishnu also comes there. The devas pray to Lord Brahma to think of a way to eliminate Ravana who had become very powerful on account of his boon, and was oppressing the devas and the sages. Thereafter the devas with forefather Brahma at the helm prays to Lord Vishnu to incarnate as the son of king Dasharatha and slay Ravana, because Ravana can only be killed by a human being as per his boon. Lord Vishnu consents to their request.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 15)

Yagna Purusha appearing: Then from the fire altar of the yagna appears a divine Yagna Purusha carrying a golden vessel full of Payasam. He tells king Dasharatha to distribute the Payasam to his queens for progeny.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 16)

King Dasharatha distributing Payasam to queens: Entering inside the palace chambers king Dasharatha distributes the Payasam to his wives. He gives half of the Payasam to queen Kaushalya, one-fourth to queen Sumitra, one-eight to queen Kaikeyi and remaining one-eight again to queen Sumitra.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 16)

Devas procreating Vanaras for helping Rama: Before the incarnation of Sri Rama, Lord Brahma tells the Devas to procreate Vanaras from their parts to serve Lord Vishnu during His Incarnation. Lord Brahma had previously created Jambavanta from his yawning. Indra procreates Vali. The Sun-god procreates Sugreeva. Brihaspati procreates Tara. Kubera procreates Gandhamadana. Vishwakarma procreates Nala. Fire-god procreates Neela. The Ashwins procreate Mainda and Dwivida. Varuna procreates Sushena. Parjanya procreates Sharabha. Maruta or Air-god procreates Hanuman. Similarly other celestial beings procreate other Vanaras. Many of them stay in mount Rikshavat.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 17)

Sri Rama incarnating: After six seasons queen Kaushalya gives birth to Sri Rama on the Chaitra Navami tithi, when the presiding Nakshatra was that whose deity is Aditi (i.e. Punarvasu Nakshatra), when the five Grahas were in ascension, when Vakpati (Jupiter) in conjunction with Indu (Moon) was in ascension in Karkata Lagna. Queen Kaikeyi gives birth to Bharata on the dawn of the next day in Mina Lagna. Queen Sumitra gives birth to Lakshmana and Shatrughna. The celestial singers sing in joy, the celestial musicians play drums. Devas shower flowers from heaven. The people of Ayodhya becomes filled with joy and celebrates the incarnation of Sri Rama in the streets. Sage Vashistha performs the naming ceremony after eleven days.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 18)

(B.4) Sri Rama meeting Bharata after forest exile:

Nandigram Bharat Kund Bharata worshipping the padukas of Sri Rama Nandigram Bharat Tapasya, Bharat Hanuman Milan Mandir Nandigram Bharat Hanuman Milan Mandir Nandigram Ram Bharat Milan, Bharat MandirBharata taking padukas of Sri Rama: Bharata goes to Chitrakoota to supplicate Sri Rama to return to Ayodhya. Sri Rama declines and tells Bharata to rule the kingdom with the guidance of the ministers. The sages also request Bharata to accept the words of Sri Rama. Bharata finally agrees and requests Sri Rama to touch with his feet two padukas (sandals) decorated with gold. Bharata bowed before the padukas and returns to Ayodhya. Before returning he tells Sri Rama that he will enter fire if Sri Rama delays his return after fourteen years.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 112)

Bharata going to Nandigrama: Bharata goes to Nandigrama. He lives like an ascetic wearing bark garments and matted hairs. He coronates the padukas (sandals) of Sri Rama as the king. Then he rules the kingdom worshipping those padukas. He keeps informing every affair of the kingdom to the padukas.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 114)

Hanuman meeting Bharata after forest exile: Sri Rama sends Hanuman to Shringaverapura to communicate his welfare to Guha, the king of the Nishadas. Then, tells Hanuman to ask Guha about Bharata and the way to Ayodhya. Thereafter going to Ayodhya, to enquire about the welfare of Bharata and inform him about the different incidents that happened during his forest exile, and that Rama is coming to him with Vibhisana and Sugreeva. Thereafter tells Hanuman to find out the intention of Bharata from his facial expression. If Bharata wants to rule the entire kingdom, let him have it. As commanded by Sri Rama, Hanuman assumes a human form and leaves for Ayodhya. Crossing Prayaga, the confluence of rivers Ganga and Yamuna, Hanuman reaches Shringaverapura. He meets Guha and gives the news of Sri Rama. On the way, Hanuman sees Ramatirtha, and rivers Valukini, Varuthi, Gomati, Bhima as well as forest of Sala trees. Then reaching Nandigrama, Hanuman saw Bharata living in a hermitage like an ascetic, and ruling the kingdom placing the wooden sandals of Sri Rama. Hanuman informs him about the arrival of Sri Rama. Bharata faints in joy. Then regaining his balance, Bharata embraces Hanuman. Bharata says that in return for this news he will give him a hundred thousand cows, hundred villages and sixteen girls of good conduct as wives. Bharata then tells Hanuman to narrate the story of Sri Rama in the forest. Hanuman narrates all the incidents that happened in the forest and tells him that Sri Rama is currently residing in the hermitage of sage Bharadwaja. Bharata was overjoyed to hear about Sri Rama.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 125 to 126)

Sri Rama meeting Bharata after forest exile: Bharata commands Shatrughna to make arrangements for receiving Sri Rama at Ayodhya. Shatrughna levels the ground from Nandigrama to Ayodhya and sprinkles parched grains and flowers over it. He decorates Ayodhya with beautiful flags as also the buildings on the way. He sprinkles fragrant colours, garlands and flowers on the royal highway. All the mothers proceed to Nandigrama. Bharata makes arrangement to give a royal reception to Sri Rama at Nandigrama with royal parasols, soldiers, brahmanas, musicians etc. Sri Rama arrives there in the Pushpaka Vimana along with Devi Sita, Lakshmana, Vibhisana, Sugreeva and others. Bharata salutes Sri Rama. Sri Rama embraces him. Then Bharata receives Devi Sita and Lakshmana. Bharata embraces the vanara chiefs like Sugreeva, Jambavan, Angada and others. The vanaras change their forms as humans and enquires about the welfare of Bharata. Bharata embraces Sugreeva and tells him that he is the fifth brother. Then Bharata greets Vibhisana. Thereafter, Shatrughna offers his salutations to Sri Rama. Sri Rama offers his salutations to his mothers and the royal priests. The citizens of Ayodhya shouts the victory of Sri Rama. Bharata places the sandals of Sri Rama before his feet and says that he is returning the sovereignty of Sri Rama today. Bharata says that as a keeper he has enhanced the treasury, granary and other possessions ten-fold. Seeing the affection of Bharata for his brother, Vibhisana and the vanaras shed tears. Then Sri Rama reaches the hermitage of Bharata in the Pushpaka Vimana and tells the aerial car to return to Kubera.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 127)

(B.5) Sri Rama getting coronated in Ayodhya:

Sri RamaSri Rama getting coronated: After Sri Rama returns to Ayodhya from the forest exile, he was coronated as the king. Sage Vasishtha presides over the coronation ceremony. Sugreeva gets waters from the four seas and holy rivers through his Vanaras. Jambavan, Hanuman, Vegadarshi and Rishabha get waters from five hundred rivers. Sushena brings water from the eastern sea. Rishabha brings water form the southern sea. Gavaya brings water from the western sea. Nala brings water from the northern sea. The Brahmanas and the Devas sprinkes the sap of all the medicinal herbs during the coronation. Sage Vasishtha adorns Rama with that crown with which Manu and the successive kings of the lineage were coronated. On that joyous occasion, the earth bears rich crops and trees bear abundant fruits and fragrant flowers. Sri Rama gives many gifts to the Brahmanas and his Vanara companions. Devi Sita gifts Hanuman a garland of pearls.
(Ref: (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128)

Sri Rama establishing the rule of Dharma: Sri Rama rules for ten thousand years. He propitiates the gods by performing yagnas like Paundarika, Ashvamedha, Vajapeya several times. He rules the kingdom with his brothers as companions. He rules his kingdom following the path of Dharma ensuring that there are no widows to lament, no danger from wild animals and no thieves and robbers to rob the wealth of others. "Rama Rama Rama" becomes the theme around which the subjects discuss their matters. The world becomes filled with the name of Rama. The trees bear fruits on time and were not affected by pests. The clouds rain on time. The wind gives its delightful touch to others. The four classes - Brahmanas (Class of Priest), Kshatriyas (Class of Warriors), Vaishyas (Class of Traders) and Shudras (Class of Servants) discharge their respective duties with joy.
(Ref: Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128)



(A) Ayodhya - Greatness (Page 1)
(B) Ayodhya - from Valmiki Ramayana (Page 2 - This Page)
(C) Ayodhya - from Ayodhya Mahatmyam (Page 3)
(D) Ayodhya - Places to see (Page 4)


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