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Cosmology

Bhu-Mandala and Seven Islands:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 1, 16 to 20: Chariot of king Priyavrata dividing the Bhu-Mandala into seven Islands: Once king Priyavrata was dissatisfied with the circumambulation of the Sun around the Sumeru mountain, which created half-light and half-darkness below (i.e. half-day and half-night). To make the night also like day, he with his superhuman prowess followed the orbit of the Sun in a dazzling chariot seven times (his chariot acting as the second Sun illuminating the dark places). The rims of the wheels of his chariot made seven trenches on the Bhu-Mandala which later became seven Oceans (Sindhu). This divided the Bhu-Mandala into seven Islands (Dwipa). The Bhu-mandala extends as far as Sun spreads its light and heat, and moon and stars can be seen.

Seven Islands and Oceans of Bhu-Mandala: The seven Islands of Bhu-Mandala are governed by the seven sons of king Priyavrata. Each island is twice as large as the preceding one. Each Island is surrounded by an ocean. The breath of the Ocean is same as the Island it surrounds. The seven Islands are:

1. Jambu Dwipa: Governed by king Agnidhra. Supreme God is worshipped in different incarnations of Lord Vishnu.

- Ocean of Salt water (Kshara Uda)

2. Plaksha Dwipa: Governed by king Idhmajihva. Supreme God is worshipped as Surya (Sun god).

- Ocean Sugarcane juice (Ikshu-rasa Uda)

3. Shalmali Dwipa: Governed by king Yajnabahu. Supreme God is worshipped as Soma (Moon god).

- Ocean of Liquor (Sura Uda)

4. Kusha Dwipa: Governed by king Hiranyareta. Supreme God is worshipped as Jataveda (Fire god).

- Ocean of Clarified butter (Ghrita Uda)

5. Kraunca Dwipa: Governed by king Ghritaprishtha. Supreme God is worshipped as Varuna (Water god).

- Ocean of Milk (Kshira Uda)

6. Shaka Dwipa: Governed by king Medhatithi. Supreme God is worshipped as Vayu (Wind god).

- Ocean of Curd (liquefied) (Dadhi-Manda Uda

7. Pushkara Dwipa: Governed by king Vitihotra. Supreme God is worshipped as Lord Brahma.

- Ocean of Pure water (Shuddha Uda)



Jambu Dwipa and Nine Varshas:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 16 to 19: Nine Varshas of Jambhu Dwipa: The Bhu-Mandala with its seven Islands resemble the koshas (sheath) of a lotus flower (Kamala kosha) with Jambu Dwipa as the innermost kosha lying at the center. Jambu Dwipa is divided into nine Varshas (divisions of land) which are separated by mountain. In Jamby Dwipa there is a Jambu tree after which the island is named.

The nine Varshas of Jambu Dwipa are:
1. Ilavrta Varsha situated in the center. The Sumeru Mountain lies in the middle of Ilavrta Varsha. In Ilavrta Varsha, Lord Shiva lives with goddess Durga and meditates on Lord Sankarshana. Lord Shiva is the only male here. If any other male enters here, he is turned into female by a curse of the goddess.

2. Ramyaka Varsha situated in the north of Ilavrta Varsha and separated by Nila Mountain. In Ramyaka Varsha, Vaivasvata Manu worships Lord Matsya.

3. Hiranmaya Varsha situated in the north of Ramyaka Varsha and separated by Shweta Mountain. In Hiranmaya Varsha, Aryama worships Lord Kurma.

4. Kuru Varsha situated in the north of Hiranmaya Varsha and separated by Shringavan Mountain. In Kuru Varsha (in Uttara Kuru), Bhumi Devi worships Lord Varaha.

5. Hari Varsha situated in the south of Ilavrta Varsha and separated by Nishadha Mountain. In Hari Varsha, Prahlada Maharaja worships Lord Nrisimha.

6. Kimpurusha Varsha situated in the south of Hari Varsha and separated by Hemakuta Mountain. In Kimpurusha Varsha, Sri Hanuman worships Lord Rama.

7. Bharata Varsha situated in the south of Kimpurusha Varsha and separated by Himalaya Mountain. In Bharata Varsha, Sri Narada worships Lord Nara-Narayana who appeared in Badarikashrama.

Some of the mountains of Bharata Varsha are: Malaya, Mangala-prastha, Mainaka, Trikuta, Rishabha, Kutaka, Kollaka, Sahya, Devagiri, Rishyamukha, Sri-shaila, Venkata, Mahendra, Varidhara, Vindhya, Shuktiman, Rikshagiri, Pariyatra, Drona, Chitrakoota, Govardhana, Raivataka, Kakubha, Nila, Gokamukha, Indrakila and Kamagiri.

Rivers Brahmaputra and Sona are the nadas of Bharatavarsha. Other key rivers are: Candravasa, Tamraparni, Avatoda, Kritamala, Vaihayasi, Kaveri, Veni, Payasvini, Sharkaravarta, Tungabhadra, Krishnavenya, Bhimarathi, Godavari, Nirvindhya, Payoshni, Tapi, Reva, Surasa, Narmada, Carmanvati, Mahanadi, Vedasmrti, Rishikulya, Trisama, Kaushiki, Mandakini, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Drishadvati, Gomati, Sarayu, Rodhasvati, Saptavati, Sushoma, Shatadru, Candrabhaga, Marudvridha, Vitasta, Asikni and Vishva.

8. Ketumala Varsha situated in the west of Ilavrta Varsha and separated by Malyavan Mountain. In Ketumala Varsha, Devi Lakshmi worships Lord Vishnu in the form of Lord Kamadeva (Pradyumna).

9. Bhadrashva Varsha situated in the east of Ilavrta Varsha and separated by Gandhamadana Mountain. In Bhadrashva Varsha, Bhadrashva the son of Dharmaraja, worships Lord Hayashirsha.



Plaksha Dwipa and Seven Varshas:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 20: Seven Varshas of Plaksha Dwipa: Plaksha Dwipa is governed by Idhmajihva, one of the sons of king Priyavrata. The seven varshas are named after his sons. In Plaksha Dwipa there is a Plaksha tree after which the island is named. The four castes of people of Plaksha Dwipa are: Hamsas, Patangas, Urdhvayanas and Satyangas. They worship the Supreme God represented by Surya (Sun god).

The seven Varshas of Plaksha Dwipa are:
1. Shiva: Mountain Manikuta. River Aruna.

2. Yavasa: Mountain Vajrakuta. River Nrimna.

3. Subhadra: Mountain Indrasena. River Angirasi.

4. Shanta: Mountain Jyotishman. River Savitri.

5. Kshema: Mountain Suparna. River Suptabhata.

6. Amrita: Mountain Hiranyasthiva. River Ritambhara.

7. Abhaya: Mountain Meghamala. River Satyambhara.



Shalmali Dwipa and Seven Varshas:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 20: Seven Varshas of Shalmali Dwipa: Shalmali Dwipa is governed by Yajnabahu, one of the sons of king Priyavrata. The seven varshas are named after his sons. In Shalmali Dwipa there is a Shalmali tree after which the island is named. It is said that Garuda resides in that tree and worships Lord Vishnu. The four castes of people of Shalmali Dwipa are: Shrutidharas, Viryadharas, Vasundharas and Ishandharas. They worship the Supreme God represented by Soma (Moon god).

The seven Varshas of Shalmali Dwipa are:
1. Surocana: Mountain Svarasa. River Anumati.

2. Saumanasya: Mountain Shatashringa. River Sinivali.

3. Ramanaka: Mountain Vamadeva. River Sarasvati.

4. Deva-varsha: Mountain Kunda. River Kuhu.

5. Paribhadra: Mountain Mukunda. River Rajani.

6. Apyayana: Mountain Pushpa-varsha. River Nanda.

7. Avijnata: Mountain Sahasra-shruti. River Raka.



Kusha Dwipa and Seven Varshas:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 20: Seven Varshas of Kusha Dwipa: Kusha Dwipa is governed by Hiranyareta, one of the sons of king Priyavrata. The seven varshas are named after his sons. In Kusha Dwipa there are Kusha grass after which the island is named. The four castes of people of Kusha Dwipa are: Kushalas, Kovidas, Abhiyuktas and Kulakas. They worship the Supreme God represented by Jataveda (Fire god).

The seven Varshas of Kusha Dwipa are:
1. Vasu: Mountain Cakra. River Ramakulya.

2. Vasudana: Mountain Catuhshringa. River Madhukulya.

3. Dridharuci: Mountain Kapila. River Mitravinda.

4. Stutyavrata: Mountain Citrakoota. River Shrutavinda.

5. Nabhigupta: Mountain Devanika. River Devagarbha.

6. Vivikta: Mountain Urdhvaroma. River Ghritacyuta.

7. Vamadeva: Mountain Dravina. River Mantramala.



Kraunca Dwipa and Seven Varshas:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 20: Seven Varshas of Kraunca Dwipa: Kraunca Dwipa is governed by Ghritaprishtha, one of the sons of king Priyavrata. The seven varshas are named after his sons. In Kraunca Dwipa there is a great mountain known as Kraunca (which was devastated by Kartikeya) after which the island is named. The four castes of people of Kraunca Dwipa are: Purushas, Rishabhas, Dravinas and Devakas. They worship the Supreme God represented by Varuna (Water god).

The seven Varshas of Kraunca Dwipa are:
1. Ama: Mountain Shukla. River Abhaya.

2. Madhuruha: Mountain Vardhamana. River Amritaugha.

3. Meghaprishtha: Mountain Bhojana. River Aryaka.

4. Sudhama: Mountain Upabarhina. River Tirthavati.

5. Bhrajishtha: Mountain Nanda. River Rupavati.

6. Lohitarna: Mountain Nandana. River Pavitravati.

7. Vanaspati: Mountain Sarvatobhadra. River Shukla.



Shaka Dwipa and Seven Varshas:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 20: Seven Varshas of Shaka Dwipa: Shaka Dwipa is governed by Medhatithi, one of the sons of king Priyavrata. The seven varshas are named after his sons. In Shaka Dwipa there is a Shaka tree after which the island is named. The four castes of people of Shaka Dwipa are: Ritavrata, Satyavrata, Danavrata and Anuvrata. They worship the Supreme God represented by Vayu (Wind god).

The seven Varshas of Shaka Dwipa are:
1. Purojava: Mountain Ishana. River Anagha.

2. Manojava: Mountain Urushringa. River Ayurda.

3. Pavamana: Mountain Balabhadra. River Ubhayasprishthi.

4. Dhumranika: Mountain Shatakesara. River Aparajita.

5. Citrarepha: Mountain Sahasrasrota. River Pancapadi.

6. Bahurupa: Mountain Devapala. River Sahasra-shruti.

7. Vishvadhara: Mountain Mahanasa. River Nijadhriti.



Pushkara Dwipa and Two Varshas:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 20: Two Varshas of Pushkara Dwipa: Pushkara Dwipa is governed by Vitihotra, one of the sons of king Priyavrata. The two varshas are named after his two sons. In Pushkara Dwipa there is a great Lotus flower (Pushkara) with 100 million golden petals after which the island is named. This Lotus flower is said to be the sitting place of Lord Brahma. The inhabitants of Pushkara Dwipa worship the Supreme God represented by Lord Brahma.

The two Varshas of Pushkara Dwipa are:
1. Ramanaka

2. Dhataki

Manasottara Mountain: In the middle of Pushkara Dwipa, the Manasottara Mountain divides the Island into two parts, one inner and one outer. On that mountain on the four directions are the cities of Lokapalas such as Indra. The Sun travels around the Sumeru mountain in a chariot moving in an orbit on top of the Manasottara mountain. This orbit is called Samvatsara.

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 21: Four cities on the Manasottara Mountain: On the Manasottara Mountain on the eastern side of the Sumeru mountain is the city of Indra known as Devadhani. On the Manasottara Mountain on the southern side of the Sumeru mountain is the city of Yama known as Samyamani. On the Manasottara Mountain on the western side of the Sumeru mountain is the city of Varuna known as Nimlocani. On the Manasottara Mountain on the northern side of the Sumeru mountain is the city of Soma known as Vibhavari.



Lokaloka Mountain and Two Varshas:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 20: Lokaloka Mountain and two Varshas: Beyond the Ocean of pure water is the Lokaloka Mountain which divides a tract of land where sunlight falls and is inhabited (Loka Varsha), and another tract of land where sunlight does not fall and is uninhabited (Aloka Varsha). The uninhabited region is made of gold whose surface is like a mirror, where when a thing falls is never perceived again. By the will of God, the Lokaloka Mountain forms the outer boundary of the three Lokas (Bhuloka, Bhuvarloka and Swarloka). It is very high and extending beyond Dhruvaloka, does not allow Sun rays to go beyond it.

Four elephants stationed: On the top of the Lokaloka Mountain, Lord Brahma established four best elephants in four directions for the maintenance of all the lokas. The name of the elephants are: Rishabha, Pushkarachuda, Vamana and Aparajita.

Bhagavan abiding: On that best of mountain Lokaloka, Bhagavan Who is the Parama-Maha-Purusha (Supreme God), Maha-Vibhuti-Pati (Endowed with Auspicious Attributes), Antaryami (Supersoul knowing every soul), Visuddha-Sattvam (Full of Pure Sattva) and endowed with Dharma-Jnana-Vairagya, Aishwarya and eight Mahasiddhis, abides with His parshada (assistants) like Vishwaksena for the benefit of all the lokas.

Aloka Varsha, the region beyond the Lokaloka Mountain is completely pure (Vishuddha).



Surya:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 20: Location of the Sun: Surya (Sun) is situated (vertically) in the center of the Universe (Anda-Madhya-Gatah) between Bhumi and Dyava (Dyava - Abhumya) (i.e. between the Terrestrial and Celestial regions).

Sun is the visible god of living entities: The Sun enters the dull Universe (Mrta Anda) (and enlivens it). Hence he is called Martanda. The Sun is created from the golden womb (Hiranya Anda). Hence he is called Hiranyagarbha.

The Sun divides the different directions of the Sky (Kha) between the Terrestrial and Celestial regions (Dyau-Mahi Bhida). It makes evident the Swarga (Heaven), Apavarga (Place of liberation), Naraka (Hell) etc.

The Sun is the soul (Atma) and the manifest god (Drk Ishwara) of all the living entities like devas, animals, human beings, serpents, insects, plants etc.

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 21: Movement of the Sun: Antariksha (Intermediate Space) joins the lower (Terrestrial region) and upper (Celestial region) parts of the Universe. The Sun is situated in the middle of the Antarisha. It heats and gives light to the three worlds. The Sun moves according to the command of the Supreme God. According to his movement above the equator, below the equator or through the equator; sometimes fast, sometimes slow and sometimes even; and according to passing through the different Rashis (Zodiac sign), the duration of the days and nights may be longer or shorter. When the Sun passes through the Mesa and Tula Rashis, the days and nights are equal. When the Sun passes through the five Rashis headed by Vrishabha, the duration of the days increase. Thereafter the duration of the day decreases by half-an-hour each month. When the Sun passes through the five Rashis headed by Vrishcika, the duration of day and night becomes opposite (i.e. night increases and day decreases, then night keeps on decreasing until it becomes equal). During Dakshina-Ayanam days are longer and during Udagayanam nights are longer.

Chariot of Surya: The chariot of Surya has only one wheel known as Samvatsara. The wheel has twelve spokes (representing twelve months), six segments of the rim (representing six seasons) and three sections of the hub (representing the catur-masyas). One side of the axle (without any wheel) is fixed on top of the Sumeru Mountain, and the other side of the axle (with wheel) moves over the Manasottara Mountain like an oil-pressing machine. To the axle which is fixed (on the Manasottara Mountain), a second axle like the (vertical) axle of an oil-pressing machine is tied to Dhruvaloka. The seven Vedic meters are the seven horses of the Sun god yoked by Arunadeva. Arunadeva drives the chariot looking backwards towards the Sun.

Worship of Surya: Sixty thousand Valikhilya sages of the size of the thumb eulogizes the Sun god. Similarly rishis, gandharvas, apsaras, nagas, yakshas, rakshasas, devas etc. separately worship the Sun god.



Chandra:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 22: Location of the Chandra: Chandra (Moon) is situated (vertically) above the Surya (Sun).

Attributes of the Chandra: When the Moon is waxing, it is day for the devas and night for the pitrs. When the Moon is waning, it is vice versa. The Moon by waxing and waning distributes prana to all the jivas. The Moon represents the Purusha with sixteen kalas, (i.e. Bhagavan). The Moon is Mano-maya (deity influencing the mind), Anna-maya (gives life to food-grains) and Amrita-maya (showers nectar of coolness). It refreshes (with its coolness) the devas, pitrs, human beings, animals, birds, trees and plants and other living beings.



Nakshatras:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 22: Location of the Nakshatras: Nakshatras (Stars) are situated (vertically) above the Chandra (Moon). There is a cluster of twenty-eight important stars headed by Abhijit.



Grahas:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 22: Location of the Grahas: Grahas (Planets) are situated (vertically) above the Nakshatras (Stars). The Grahas are:

1. Ushana (Venus): Situated above the Nakshatras. It is favourable for rains.

2. Budha (Mercury): Situated above Ushana. It is almost always auspicious for the living beings. However when it is separated from the Sun, it can cause storms, lack of rainfall etc.

3. Angaraka (Mars): Situated above Budha. It is mostly inauspicious for the living beings.

4. Brihaspati (Jupiter): Situated above Angaraka. It is almost always favourable for the living beings.

5. Shani (Saturn): Situated above Brihaspati. It is almost always creator of ashanti (lack of peace) for the living beings.



Saptarshis:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 22: Location of the abode of Saptarshis: The abode of the Rishis (Sages) are situated (vertically) above the Grahas (Planets).

Attributes of the Saptarshis: The Saptarshis always meditate on Bhagavan Vishnu.



Dhruvaloka:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 23: Location of the Dhruvaloka: Dhruvaloka is situated (vertically) above the abode of the Saptarshis.

Attributes of the Dhruvaloka: In Dhruvaloka the Supreme Feet (Parama Padam) of Lord Vishnu is present. There, the great devotee (Maha Bhagavata) Dhruva, the son of Uttanapada abide, and is circumambulated by Agni, Indra, Prajapati, Kashyapa and Dharma. By the will if Ishwara, Dhruvaloka is like a shining pivot around which all the Grahas (Stars) and Nakshatras (Planets) revolve.



Shishumara:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 23: About Shishumara: The array of the luminaries (Planets and Stars) in the sky resemble a Shishumara (Dolphin) which many yogis meditate upon as (the visible body of) Bhagavan Vasudeva.

Description of the Shishumara: The various planets, stars and lokas situated in the Shishimara are as follows:

1. At the end of its tail (puccha-agre) of its bent body is situated the Dhruva (Polestar).
2. On its tail (langule) is situated Prajipati, Agni, Indra and Dharma.
3. At the base of its tail (puccha-mule) is situated Dhata and Vidhata.
4. On its hip (katyam) is situated the Sapta Rishis.
5. On the coiled body turning right on the northern course (udagayanani) is situated the Nakshatras. On the left has similar number.
6. On the back (pristhe) is situated the Ajavithi.
7. On the abdomen (udara) is sitated the Akasha Ganga.
8. On the right and left loins (shroni) are situated the Punarvasu and Pushya.
9. On the right and left feet (pada) are situated the Ardra and Ashlesha.
10. On the right and left nostrils (nashika) are situated the Abhijit and Uttarashadha.
11. On the right and left eyes (locana) are situated the Shravana and Purvashadha.
12. On the right and left ears (karna) are situated the Dhanishtha and Mula.
13. On the left ribs (vangkri) are situated the eight nakshatras starting with Magha (on the southern course).
14. On the right ribs (vangkri) are situated the eight nakshatras starting with Mrigashirsha (on the northern course).
15. On the right and left shoulders (skandha) are situated Shatabhisha and Jyeshtha.
16. On the upper and lower jaws (hanu) are situated Agasti and Yama.
17. On its mouth (mukha) is situated Angaraka (Mars).
18. On the lap or genitals (upastha) is situated Shani (Saturn).
19. On the end of the neck (kakuda) is situated Brihaspati (Jupiter).
20. On the chest (vaksha) is situated Aditya (Sun).
21. Within the heart (hridaya) is situated Narayana.
22. Within the mind (manasa) is situated Chandra (Moon).
23. On the navel (nabhi) is situated Ushana (Venus).
24. On the breasts (stana) is situated the two Ashwins.
25. In the vital airs prana and apana is situated Budha (Mercury).
26. On the neck (gala) is situated Rahu.
27. In all parts of the body (sarva-anga) are situated the Ketavah (Comets).
28. In all pores of the body (roma) are situated the Tara-gana (Stars).

The body of the Shishumara (Shishumara-chakra) is the external form of Lord Vishnu consisting all the devas. One who meditates upon it three times a day becomes free from all the sins.



Antariksha:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 21, 24: Location of the Antariksha: Antariksha (Intermediate Space) joins the lower (Terrestrial region) and upper (Celestial region) parts of the Universe. Surya (Sun) is situated in the middle of the Antariksha. It heats and gives light to the three worlds. The Antariksha extends as far as the wind blows and the clouds are seen.

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 22: Lokas between Surya and Dhruva: The different lokas between Surya and Dhruva are:
1. Surya (Sun): Situated in the middle of the Antariksha
2. Chandra (Moon): Situated above Surya.
3. Nakshatras (Stars): Situated above Chandra. There is a cluster of twenty-eight important stars headed by Abhijit.
4. Grahas (Planets): Situated above Nakshatras. They are Ushana (Venus), Budha (Mercury), Angaraka (Mars), Brihaspati (Jupiter) and Shani (Saturn).
5. Saptarshis (Rishis): Situated above Grahas.
6. Dhruvaloka: Situated above the Saptarshis.

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 24: Lokas between Surya and Bhu-Mandala: The different lokas between Surya and Bhu-Mandala are:
1. Surya (Sun): Situated in the middle of the Antariksha
2. Rahu: Situated below Surya.
3. Siddhas, Caranas and Vidhyadharas: Situated below Rahu.
4. Yakshas, Rakshasas, Pisacas, Pretas, Bhutas: Situated below Siddhas, Caranas and Vidhyadharas.
5. Prithivi (Bhu-Mandala): Situated below Yakshas etc.



Bila Swarga:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 24: Location of the Bila Swarga: Bila Swargas or Subterranean Heavens are located below the Bhu-Mandala. These Subterranean Heavens are great place of enjoyments even surpassing Heavens. Maharaja Maya (Maya Danava) constructed the various cities of the Subterranean Heavens. There is no fear of days and nights and divisions of times in the Subterranean Heavens (because the Sun does not shine there). The gems in the hoods of many great serpents drive away the darkness there. The residents are always in good health by consuming divya ausadhi (divine herbs). They are not afflicted by old age and diseases. There is also no fear of death. Only the Lord's Sudarshana Chakra makes them afraid.

Bila Swargas or Subterranean Heavens: Bila Swargas or Subterranean Heavens are:
1. Atala: In Atala resides Bala, the son of Maya Danava. He created ninety-six kinds of Mayas (Power of Illusions). He also created three kinds of women: Swairini, Kamini and Pumshcali. When a man enters Atala, the women induce him with various intoxicating drinks to enjoy pleasure with him.

2. Vitala: In Vitala resides Lord Shiva (known as Hatakeshwara) with Devi Bhavani. Their union led to the flow of the river Hataki. From that river is produced a gold (by fire and wind) known as Hataka which are used by the demons to make ornaments.

3. Sutala: In Sutala resides Maharaja Bali, the son of Maharaja Virochana. He was given this loka by the Vamana Avatara of Sri Vishnu.

4. Talatala: In Talatala resides Maya Danava. Lord Shiva, known as Tripurari, once destroyed the three cities built by Maya Danava. Later out of grace he gave this city.

5. Mahatala: In Mahatala resides the Sarpas (Snakes) who are the descendants of Kadru. They are always angry. Prominent among them are Kuhaka, Takshaka, Kaliya and Sushena. They are always afraid of Garuda.

6. Rasatala: In Rasatala resides the Daityas and Danavas (sons of Diti and Danu). They are called Panis, Nivata-kavacas, Kaleyas and Hiranya-puravasis. They are very powerful and enemies of the devas.

7. Patala: In Patala resides the Nagas (Serpents) headed by Vasuki. Prominent among them are Shankha, Kulika, Mahashankha, Shweta, Dhananjaya, Dhritarashtra, Shankhacuda, Kambala, Ashwatara and Devadatta. The serpents are many-hooded and the gems on their hoods illuminate the Bila-Sarga.



Narakas and Pitrloka:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 26: Location of the Narakas and Pitrloka: Narakas or hellish regions are situated below the Bhu-Mandala and above the jala (ocean). The Pitrloka is also situated near this region. The hells are meant to punish the living beings for their sinful deeds. Yamaraja, the son of Vaivasvata (Sun god) is the king of Pitrloka. He accords punishments according to the deeds of the living beings.

The Narakas (Hells): The names of different Narakas are Tamisra, Andhatamisra, Raurava, Maharaurava, Kumbhipaka, Kalasutra, Asipatravana, Sukaramukha, Andhakupa, Krmibhojana, Sandamsha, Taptasurmi, Vajrakantaka-shalmali, Vaitarani, Puyoda, Pranarodha, Vishasana, Lalabhaksha, Sarameyadana, Avici, Ayahpana, Ksharakardama, Rakshogana-bhojana, Shulaprota, Dandashuka, Avata-nirodhana, Paryavartana and Sucimukha.



Lord Ananta:


Sri Vishnu Events:

Srimad Bhagavatam - Skanda 05 - 25: Abode of Lord Ananta: In the region below the Patala loka abides Lord Ananta, who is also known as Lord Sankarshana.

Attributes of Lord Ananta: Lord Ananta is a part (kala) of the Supreme God. He is also known as Tamasi (because of being associated with Rudra). But to the devotees he is known as Lord Ananta and also Lord Sesha. Lord Ananta holds the I-sense (aham) and ego (abhimana) present in the perception of seer and seeing (drastr - drishya). He can also extract (i.e. remove) the bondage of the ego. Hence he is known as Sankarshana (literally drawing together and also extracting).

The universe (kshiti-mandala) is situated on one of the thousand hoods of Lord Ananta, and appears as small as a mustard seed (siddharta). During the time of dissolution, his two eyebrows move in anger, and a Rudra named Sankarshana emerges from it to destroy the universe.

When the king of snakes (ahi-pati) and sages (rishi) bow down meditating with one-pointed devotion on the gem-like reddish toe-nails of the lotus feet of Lord Ananta, they see their own faces glittering and their minds getting filled with joy. Lord Ananta is constantly meditated upon by the suras (devas), asuras, uragas (snakes), siddhas, gandharvas, vidyadharas and munis.

Lord Ananta is dressed in blue garments, wears a single ear-ring and holds a plow with his hands.

If a mumukshu (person desiring liberation) meditates upon Lord Ananta (to attain liberation), after having heard his glory; Lord Ananta cuts the knot of his heart (hridaya-granthi) which is the source of avidya-maya (illusory energy) present since time immemorial (anadi). Sage Narada sings the glory of Lord Ananta in the assembly of Lord Brahma with his stringed instrument (tumburu).




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Last updated on Aug-2021

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