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Valmiki Ramayana

Incarnation of Sri Rama:


1. Ayodhya: (River Sarayu)

Sri Rama 1. King Dasharatha bringing sage Rishyashringa: King Dasharatha brought sage Rishyashringa to Ayodhya to perform the Vedic ritual of getting a progeny (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 11).

2. King Dasharatha performing the Ashwamedha yagna: King Dasharatha performed the Ashwamedha yagna before the Putrakameshti yagna (under the guidance of sage Vasistha and sage Rishyashringa) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 12 to 14).

3. King Dasharatha starting the Putrakameshti yagna: King Dasharatha started the Putrakameshti yagna presided by sage Rishyashringa. Celestials prayed to Lord Vishnu to incarnate as the son of king Dasharatha (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 15).

4. Yagna Purusha emerging: Yagna Purusha emerged during the Putrakameshti yagna with a golden vessel with divine dessert (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 16).

5. King Dasharatha giving the divine dessert: King Dasharatha gave the divine dessert to his four queens (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 16).

6. Lord Brahma asking Devas to procreate vanaras: Lord Brahma asked the Devas to procreate vanaras from their parts to help Lord Rama during his incarnation (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 17).

7. Sri Rama incarnating at Ayodhya: Sri Rama incarnated as the son of Kaushalya on the Chaitra Shukla Navami (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 18).

Event: Sri Rama incarnating at Ayodhya (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 11 to 18)
Pilgrimage: Ayodhya (Ayodhya district, Uttar Pradesh)
Festival: Rama Navami (Chaitra Shuklapaksha Navami)


Journey of Sri Rama with Vishwamitra:


• Sage Vishwamitra arriving: Sage Vishwamitra arrived and requested king Dasharatha to hand over Rama to him for ten days to protect his ritual from demons (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 18 to 21).

1. Koshala: (River Sarayu)

Sri Rama with Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama starting from Ayodhya: Sri Rama and Lakshmana started from Ayodhya with sage Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 22).

2. Sri Rama receiving Bala and Atibala mantras: Sri Rama received the Bala and Atibala mantras on the bank of river Sarayu. Sage Vishwamitra said that these mantras give great strength and one can be free from illness and fatigue. Sri Rama spent a night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 22).

Event: Sri Rama receiving Bala and Atibala mantras (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 22)



2. Anga: (Confluence of rivers Ganga and Sarayu)

Sri Rama with Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama visiting Anga Ashrama (Confluence of rivers Ganga and Sarayu): Sri Rama visited the Anga province and heard the story of Lord Shiva burning Kamadeva. Spent a night in a hermitage there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 23).

2. Sri Rama crossing river Ganga: Sri Rama crossed river Ganga at Anga and heard about river Sarayu originating from lake Manasa (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 24).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Anga Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 23 to 24)
Pilgrimage: Kameshwar Dham (Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh)



3. Tataka Forest:

Sri Rama slaying demoness Tataka 1. Sri Rama visiting Tataka Forest: Sri Rama visited the Tataka forest and heard the story of demoness Tataka from sage Vishwamitra. Tataka was a yaksha (daughter of Sunda) who became a demoness by the curse of sage Agastya. Her son was Mareecha who also became a demon by the curse of the sage (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 24 to 25).

2. Sri Rama slaying demoness Tataka: Sri Rama slayed demoness Tataka on the command of sage Vishwamitra. Devas extolled him. Spent a night in the forest (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 26).

3. Sri Rama receiving divine weapons: Sri Rama received divine weapons from sage Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 27).

4. Sri Rama receiving knowledge of annulling them: Sri Rama received the knowledge of annulling the divine weapons from sage Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 28).

Event: Sri Rama slaying demoness Tataka (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 24 to 28)
Pilgrimage: Tataka Vanam (Buxar district, Bihar)



4. Siddhashrama:

Sri Vamana Sri Rama protecting yagna of Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama visiting Siddhashrama: Sri Rama came to the outskirts of Siddhashrama (after coming out of the Tataka forest) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 28).

2. Sri Rama hearing the story of Vamana avatara: Sri Rama heard the story of Vamana avatara of Lord Vishnu and the disturbances caused by the demons. Spent a night in the hermitage (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 29).

3. Sri Rama guarding the yagna of Vishwamitra: Sri Rama guarded the yagna of Vishwamitra for six days and nights. Repelled demon Mareecha and slayed demon Subahu (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 30).
• Sri Rama spent the night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 31).

4. Sri Rama hearing about the divine bow of king Janaka: Sri Rama heard the story of the Vedic yagna of king Janaka and bow of Lord Shiva from the sages. Sri Rama along with the sages started their journey from Siddhashrama towards Mithila to see the divine bow (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 31).

Event: Sri Rama hearing about Vamana incarnation (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 29)
Event: Sri Rama protecting yagna of Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 30)
Pilgrimage: Vamaneshwar Dham (Buxar district, Bihar)



5. Girivraja: (River Sona)

Sri Rama with sage Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama visiting Girivraja: On the way from Siddhashrama to Mithila, Sri Rama camped on the bank of river Sona at Girivraja (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 31).

2. Sri Rama hearing about the lineage of Vishwamitra: Sri Rama heard the story of the lineage of Vishwamitra. Sri Rama spent the night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 32 to 34).

Event: Sri Rama hearing about Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 31 to 34)
Lineage: Kusha, Kushanabha, Gadhi, Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 32 to 34)
Pilgrimage: Rajgir (Nalanda district, Bihar)



6. Girivraja to Mithila: (River Ganga)

Sri Rama with sage Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama camping at River Ganga: Sri Rama camped on the bank of river Ganga (while travelling from Girivraja towards Mithila) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 35).

2. Sri Rama hearing about the descent of Ganga: Sri Rama heard the story of the descent of river Ganga from sage Vishwamitra. Sri Rama spent the night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 35 to 44).

Event: Sri Rama hearing about Ganga (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 35 to 44)
Lineage: Sagara (son of Asita and grandson of Bharata), Asamanja, Amshuman, Dilipa, Bhagiratha (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 70)
Incarnation: Kapil Muni



7. Vishala:

Sri Rama with sage Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama visiting Vishala: Sri Rama crossed river Ganga and arrived at Vishala (while going towards Mithila) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 45).

2. Sri Rama hearing the story of the churning of Milky Ocean: Sri Rama heard the story of the churning of the Milky Ocean (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 45).

3. Sri Rama hearing the story of the penance of Diti: Sri Rama heard the story of the penance of Diti in Kushaplava which is Vishala (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 46).
• Sri Rama heard the story of Indra fragmenting the foetus of Diti and emergence of Marudganas (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 47).

4. Sri Rama hearing about the lineage of kings of Vishala: Sri Rama heard about the lineage of kings of Vishala (with current king Sumati coming to receive them). Spent a night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 47).



8. Mithila outskirts:

Sri Rama redeeming Devi Ahalya 1. Sri Rama visiting the Gautama Ashrama: Sri Rama reached the outskirts of Mithila and heard the story of the curse on Devi Ahalya and her unseen penance (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 48).

2. Sri Rama redeeming Devi Ahalya: Sri Rama redeemed Devi Ahalya from her curse and she became united with sage Gautama (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 49).

Event: Sri Rama delivering Devi Ahalya (Gautama Ashrama) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 48 to 49)
Pilgrimages: Ahalya Asthan (Darbhanga district, Bihar)



9. Mithila:

Sri Rama breaking the bow and marrying Devi Sita Sri Rama marrying Devi Sita Sri Rama humbling Parashurama 1. Sri Rama reaching the palace of king Janaka: Sri Rama reached Mithila. Sage Vishwamitra told king Janaka about Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 50).
• Sri Rama heard the story of sage Vishwamitra from sage Shatananda (who is also the son of Devi Ahalya). Spent the night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 51 to 65).
• Sri Rama heard the story of the bow of Lord Shiva from king Janaka (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 66).
• Sri Rama heard the story of the appearance of Devi Sita from king Janaka (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 66).

2. Sri Rama breaking the bow of Lord Shiva: Sri Rama broke the bow of Lord Shiva in the palace of king Janaka (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 67).

3. Sri Rama marrying Devi Sita:
• King Janaka sent message to king Dasharatha at Ayodhya. King Dasharatha arrived there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 68 to 69).
• Sage Vashistha narrated the lineage of Sri Rama (Ikshwaku dynasty) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 70).
• King Janaka narrated his lineage (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 71).
• Sage Vishwamitra proposed the marriage of Bharata and Shatrughna to the daughters of king Kushadhwaja (brother of king Janaka) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 72).
• Sri Rama married Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 73).

4. Sri Rama vanquishing the pride of Parashurama: Sri Rama vanquished the pride of Parashurama after hearing the legend of the bows of Shiva and Vishnu (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 74 to 76).

Pilgrimages: Mithila (Baliraajgadh in Madhubani district, Bihar), Mithila (Sitamarhi in Sitamarhi district, Bihar), Mithila (Janakpur in Dhanusha district, Nepal)
Incarnation: Parashurama





Journey of Sri Rama during forest exile:


1. Koshala: (Rivers Tamasa, Vedashruti, Gomati and Syandika)

Sri Rama departing to forest 1. Sri Rama starting from Ayodhya: Sri Rama started from Ayodhya (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 45).

2. Sri Rama camping on the bank of river Tamasa: Sri Rama camped on the bank of river Tamasa for one night (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 45 to 46).
• River Tamasa: Citizens of Ayodhya followed and later found that Sri Rama had left (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 47).
• Citizens of Ayodhya lamented after reaching their houses (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 48).

3. Sri Rama crossing river Vedashruti: Sri Rama crossed river Vedashruti within the Koshala kingdom (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 49).

4. Sri Rama crossing river Gomati: Sri Rama crossed river Gomati within the Koshala kingdom (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 49).

5. Sri Rama crossing river Syandika: Sri Rama crossed river Syandika and the boundary of the Koshala kingdom (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 49)
• Sri Rama bade farewell to the Koshala kingdom with joined palms (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 50).



2. Sringaverapura: (River Ganga)

Sri Rama with Guha 1. Sri Rama visiting Sringaverapura: Sri Rama reached river Ganga at Sringaverapura and camped on its bank under an Ingudi tree. Guha (Nishadraj) came to meet him. Sri Rama spent a night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 50 to 51)

2. Sri Rama crossing river Ganga: Sri Rama dressed like ascetics making his hair matted with Banyan tree latex and wearing tree bark. Sent back Sumantra. Crossed river Ganga in a boat built by Guha. Devi Sita offered prayers to river Ganga (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 52).

Event: Sri Rama meeting Guha (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 51 to 52)
Pilgrimage: Shringaverpur (Prayagraj district, Uttar Pradesh)



3. Vatsa:

1. Sri Rama visiting Vatsa: Sri Rama reached Vatsa after crossing river Ganga and rested under a tree to spend the night (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 52).
• Sri Rama tried to send back Lakshmana who did not agree. Spent the night under a Banyan tree (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 53).

2. Sri Rama proceeding towards Prayaga: Sri Rama proceeded towards Prayaga (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 54).



4. Prayaga: (Confluence of rivers Ganga and Yamuna)

Sri Rama visiting hermitage 1. Sri Rama visiting Prayaga: Sri Rama reached Prayaga, the holy confluence of rivers Ganga and Yamuna (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 54).

2. Sri Rama visiting Bharadwaja Ashrama: Sri Rama visited the Bharadwaja Ashrama at Prayaga (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 54).
• Sage Bharadwaja extended his hospitality and said that he can stay there. But Sri Rama asked for a suitable place far off from Ayodhya. Sage Bharadwaja suggested Chitrakoota which is a place of penance of many siddhas. Sri Rama spent a night in that hermitage (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 54).
• Next morning sage Bharadwaja told the route to Chitrakoota from there, crossing river Yamuna, coming to a Banyan tree called Shyama and from there proceeding to Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 55).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Bharadwaja Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 54 to 55)
Pilgrimage: Prayag (Prayagraj district, Uttar Pradesh)



5. Prayaga to Chitrakoota: (River Yamuna)

Sri Rama departing to forest 1. Sri Rama crossing river Yamuna: Sri Rama crossed river Yamuna by preparing a raft of wood. Devi Sita offered prayers to river Yamuna in the middle of the river (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 55).

2. Sri Rama reaching banyan tree Shyama: Sri Rama reached the Banyan (Nyagrodha) tree called Shyama which was having the cool shade of green leaves. Devi Sita prayed to the Banyan tree circumambulating it with joined palms (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 55).

3. Sri Rama travelling through forest: Sri Rama travelled through the forest along the bank of river Yamuna and spent a night there. Next morning again started the journey towards Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 55 to 56).

Event: Sri Rama travelling from Prayaga to Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 55 to 56)



6. Chitrakoota: (River Mandakini)

Rishi Valmiki Sri Rama staying at Chitrakoota Sri Rama giving his padukas to Bharata Rishi Atri and Devi Anusuiya 1. Sri Rama visiting Valmiki Ashrama: Sri Rama visited the Valmiki Ashrama at Chitrakoota. The sage extended cordial welcome to them (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 56).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Valmiki Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 56)

2. Sri Rama staying at Chitrakoota: Sri Rama built a parna shala through Lakshmana and consecrated it with mantras. The parna shala had altars and places of worship (Chaityas and Ayatanas). Sri Rama stayed in that parna shala in the beautiful mountain forest where river Malyavati flowed (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 56).

3. Sri Rama describing the beauty of Chitrakoota: Sri Rama described the beauty of Chitrakoota mountain to Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 94).

4. Sri Rama describing the beauty of river Mandakini: Sri Rama described the beauty of river Mandakini to Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 95).

Event: Sri Rama staying at Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 94 to 94)
Pilgrimage: Chitrakoot (Chitrakoot district, Uttar Pradesh)
Nature: Trees of Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 94)

5. Sri Rama meeting Bharata: Sri Rama met Bharata (who was choking with emotion and also clad like ascetics with bark) who came to Chitrakoota with an army to take Rama back (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 99).
• Sri Rama indirectly gave instructions to Bharata about the duties of a king (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 100).
• Bharata informed Sri Rama about the death of Dasharatha and requested him to accept the throne (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 101 to 102).
• Sri Rama fainted hearing the news of his father's death and regaining consciousness, sorrowfully offered oblations with Ingudi fruit pulp in the waters of river Mandakini (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 103).
• Sri Rama met mother Kaushalya and others (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 104).
• Bharata tried to persuade Sri Rama to accept the kingdom through various arguments. Sri Rama refuted them (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 105 to 107).
• Brahmana Jabali tried to persuade Sri Rama to accept the kingdom through various arguments. Sri Rama refuted them (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 108 to 109).
• Sage Vasistha told about creation and the lineage of Sri Rama. He said that the eldest son can only become the king. He asked Sri Rama to accept the throne. But Sri Rama said that his father's words cannot be disregarded (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 110 to 111).
• Bharata then resolved to undertake fast-unto-death sitting on a Kusha grass. Sri Rama rebuked him saying that it does not befit a Kshatriya. The citizens supported Sri Rama. Bharata said he can instead go for forest exile, but Sri Rama said the words of father cannot be exchanged. Sri Rama said that after returning from forest exile he will rule the kingdom with the help of his brothers (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 111).
• The sages requested Bharata to agree to the words of Sri Rama. When Bharata told him about his inability to rule the kingdom, Sri Rama told him to seek the advice of the council of ministers. Finally Bharata agreed and asked for the padukas (sandals) of Sri Rama (as a representative of the actual king). Sri Rama gave his padukas to Bharata (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 112).

Event: Sri Rama meeting Bharata at Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 101 to 112)

6. Sri Rama seeing anxiety in sages: Sri Rama saw anxiety in the sages living there and they were leaving Chitakoota. Upon enquiry, he came to know of demon Khara tormenting the sages due to enmity towards Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 116).

7. Sri Rama leaving Chitrakoota: Sri Rama decided to leave Chitrakoota: Sri Rama decided to leave Chitrakoota due to the haunting memories of his brothers and mother and the spoilage done by the armies of Bharata (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 117).

8. Sri Rama visiting Atri-Anusuya Ashrama: Sri Rama visited the Atri-Anusuya Ashrama while leaving Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 117 to 119).
• Devi Anasuya instructed Devi Sita about the duties of a devoted wife and gave here gifts of divine garments and ornaments. Sri Rama spent a night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 117 to 119).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Atri-Anusuya Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 117 to 119)



7. Dandakaranya:

Sri Rama encountering demon Viradha Rishi Sharabhanga Sri Rama in hermitage Sri Rama staying at Dandaka forest Rishi Agastya 1. Sri Rama entering Dandakaranya: Sri Rama saw a cluster of hermitages of sages nestled within the sacred environment of Vedic tradition. The sages welcomed him and sought his protection. Sri Rama spent a night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 1).

2. Sri Rama encountering demon Viradha: Sri Rama encountered demon Viradha who was having a monstrous appearance. Viradha first captured Devi Sita to marry her (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 2).
• Viradha told Sri Rama about his boon from Lord Brahma by which he cannot be cut by weapons. Sri Rama fought with Viradha but his weapons became ineffective. Leaving Devi Sita, Viradha lifted Sri Rama and Lakshmana on his shoulders and carried them away (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 3).
• Devi Sita screamed. Sri Rama and Lakshmana severed the arms of Viradha and pounded him, but could not kill him. Viradha told that he is gandharva Tumburu cursed by Kubera and he will be redeemed by Rama. He then told about sage Sharabanga. Sri Rama buried Viradha in a pit (and redeemed him) (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 4).

3. Sri Rama visiting Sharabhanga Ashrama: Sri Rama visited the hermitage of sage Sharabhanga. During that time, Indra came to take the sage to the abode of Brahma as a fruit of his great penance, but the sage refused since he was waiting for the arrival of Sri Rama. Sage Sharabhanga offered the fruits of his penance to Sri Rama who refused asking only for a place of stay. Sage Sharabhanga told Sri Rama to go to sage Suteekshna (following river Mandakini). Then he entered the sacred fire, gave up his body and went to the abode of Brahma (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 5).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Sharabhanga Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 5)

4. Sages approaching Sri Rama for protection: Sri Rama met many sages who performed severe penance in that deep forest. They approached him for protection from demons. Sri Rama vowed to eliminate the demons (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 6).

5. Sri Rama visiting Suteekshna Ashrama: Sri Rama visited the hermitage of sage Suteekshna. The sage cordially welcomed him saying that he was waiting for him. He offered the fruits of his penance to Sri Rama who refused asking only for a place of stay. Sage Suteekshna suggested his own hermitage but told about the problem of herds of wild animals visiting that place. Sri Rama spent a night there and decided to move on. Sage Suteekshna told him to come back again after seeing all the hermitages (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 7 to 8).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Suteekshna Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 7 to 8)

6. Devi Sita expressing concern: Devi Sita raised the concern about killing the demons in the forest without enmity. Sri Rama said that the sages have approached him for refuge, and he must abide by his words given to the brahmanas (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 9 to 10).

7. Sri Rama visiting Pancha Apsara Lake: Sri Rama visited the Pancha Apsara Lake and heard the story of sage Mandakarni marrying five Apsaras and living in that lake (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Pancha Apsara Lake (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11)

8. Sri Rama visiting hermitages of various sages for ten years: Sri Rama visited various hermitages of sages for ten years while living in Dandakaranya (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

9. Sri Rama revisiting Suteekshna Ashrama: Sri Rama revisited Suteekshna Ashrama. Sri Rama asked about the hermitage of Agastya. Sage Suteekshna happily gave the direction, also telling about the hermitage of sage Agastya on the way (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

Event: Sri Rama revisiting Suteekshna Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11)

10. Sri Rama starting for Agastya Ashrama: Sri Rama started for Agastya Ashrama and reached near the hermitage of the brother of sage Agastya. On the way Sri Rama told the legend of demons Ilvala and Vatapi whom sage Agastya vanquished to save the brahmanas (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

11. Sri Rama visiting the hermitage of the brother of sage Agastya: Sri Rama visited the hermitage of the brother of sage Agastya and spent one night there. (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

Event: Sri Rama visiting the Ashrama of sage Agastya's brother (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11)

12. Sri Rama reaching the precincts of the hermitage of sage Agastya: Sri Rama reached the precincts of the hermitage of sage Agastya (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

13. Sri Rama visiting Agastya Ashrama: Sri Rama visited Agastya Ashrama. The sage was also yearning to see him and welcomed him cordially (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 12).
• Sage Agastya gave Sri Rama a bow of Vishnu, arrows of Brahma and the sword of Indra (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 12).
• Sage Agastya praised Devi Sita for her devotion to husband, and not leaving him during the time of ill-fortune (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 13).
• Sri Rama asked for a place of stay in the forest. Sage Agastya suggested Panchavati which is two yojanas from there (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 13).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Agastya Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11 to 13)

14. Sri Rama meeting Jatayu: Sri Rama met Jatayu on the way to Panchavati. Jatayu told about his lineage, mentioning about the dynasty of sage Kashyapa. Jatayu said that he is a friend of Dasharatha and offered his service of protection to Devi Sita in the forest. Sri Rama gladly agreed and took Jatayu with him (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 14).



8. Panchavati (Dandakaranya outskirts): (River Godavari)

Sri Rama staying at Panchavati Sri Rama encountering Surpanakha Sri Rama killing demons Khara and Dushana Sri Rama going after golden deer Sri Rama killing demon Mareecha Abduction of Devi Sita 1. Sri Rama staying at Panchavati: Sri Rama reached Panchavati where river Godavari flowed. Lakshmana built a beautiful cottage (parna shala). Seeing the cottage Sri Rama was filled with joy and embraced Lakshmana (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 15).
• One day while going for bath on river Godavari, Lakshmana described the beauty of the Hemanta Ritu to Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 16).

Event: Sri Rama staying at Panchavati (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 15 to 16)
Pilgrimage: Panchavati (Nashik district, Maharashtra)
Nature: Trees of Panchavati (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 15)

2. Sri Rama encountering Surpanakha: Sri Rama encountered demoness Surpanakha at Panchavati. Lakshmana defaced her. Surpanakha went to brother Khara to report this (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 17 to 18).

Event: Sri Rama encountering Surpanakha (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 17 to 18)

3. Surpanakha reporting to Khara: Surpanakha told about her condition to brother Khara and instigated him to take revenge. Khara sent fourteen demons to eliminate Sri Rama. (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 19).

4. Sri Rama slaying the demons of Khara: The fourteen demons of Khara went to Panchavati with Surpanakha and waged a war with Sri Rama. Sri Rama slayed them all (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 20).

5. Surpanakha reporting to Khara: Supanakha went to Khara and reported the death of the demons. She advised Khara to wage a war against Rama else Rama might eliminate the demons (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 21).

6. Sri Rama slaying Khara and Dushana: Khara marched with fourteen thousand demons to wage a war with Sri Rama. On the way they saw various evil omens (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 20 to 23).
• Sri Rama destroyed the army of demons single-handedly in the battle (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 24 to 25).
• Sri Rama destroyed demon Dushana with his army in the battle (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 26).
• Sri Rama destroyed demon Trishira in the battle (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 27).
• Sri Rama destroyed demon Khara in the battle after a long encounter. The devas showered flowers on Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 28 to 30).

Event: Sri Rama slaying Khara and Dushana (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 20 to 30)

6. Akampana reporting to Ravana: Akampana, a spy of Ravana reported the destruction of Khara at Janasthana to Ravana at Lanka (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 31).
• When Ravana decided to march against Sri Rama, Akampana described the extreme prowess of Sri Rama and dissuaded Ravana, for Rama is invincible (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 31).
• Instead Akampana described the beauty of Devi Sita and suggested Ravana to abduct her so that Sri Rama died due to the grief of loss of his beloved wife (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 31).

7. Ravana going to Mareecha: Next morning Ravana went to Mareecha in a chariot. Mareecha extended his hospitality. Ravana told about his intention of abducting Devi Sita. Mareecha dissuaded Ravana describing the great prowess of Rama and said that it is a suicidal thought. Ravana returned to Lanka (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 31).

8. Surpanakha going to Ravana: Surpunakha went to Ravana and scorned him telling that a king oblivious of his dangers in the kingdom will not survive long. When Ravana asked about Sri Rama, Surpanakha described his great prowess. Then Surpanakha described the great beauty of Devi Sita and lured Ravana to abduct her (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 33 to 34).

9. Ravana again going to Mareecha: Hearing the words of Surpanakha and thinking over it, Ravana firmly decided his course of action (of abducting Devi Sita). He secretly took his chariot and travelled to the hermitage of Mareecha. The beauty of the coastline is described. Ravana saw a huge banyan tree similar to that associated with the legend of Garuda who carried a broken banyan tree branch on his beak (not allowing it to fall) so as not to disturb the penance of the sages over it (thus getting the blessings of the sages). Mareecha extended his hospitality to Ravana. Ravana told his plan of the golden deer to Mareecha and requested his help. Mareecha became afraid and tried to dissuade Ravana saying that it will bring his own downfall. Mareecha recollected his two previous encounters with Rama. Ravana rejected his advice and said that he will kill him if he does not obey him (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 35 to 41).

9. Mareecha becoming a golden deer: Mareecha went near the hermitage of Rama on the chariot of Ravana. He assumed the form of a golden deer and moved near the hermitage. Devi Sita came to pluck flowers and saw the deer in astonishment (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 42).

10. Sri Rama going after the golden deer: Devi Sita called Sri Rama and Lakshmana and showed them the golden deer. She asked Sri Rama to get the deer alive, or if not possible dead, so that she will sit on the beautiful deer-skin. Lakshmana warned that it is demon Mareecha in disguise. Sri Rama said that even if it is demon Mareecha, it is his duty to eliminate him. Sri Rama went after the golden deer asking Lakshmana to guard Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 43).

11. Sri Rama killing Mareecha: Sri Rama went after the golden deer to capture it. The deer eluded him for a long time playing hide-and-seek and drew him away to a far-off place. Finally Sri Rama shot an arrow and pierced the heart of Mareecha in the form of deer. Mareecha abandoned the deer form and coming back to the demon form yelled "Ha Sita, Ha Lakshmana", so as to also draw away Lakshmana from Devi Sita. Sri Rama understanding the danger hastily returned towards Panchavati (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 44).

12. Devi Sita making Lakshmana search for Rama: When the cry of Mareecha is heard, Devi Sita asked Lakshmana to go and help Sri Rama. When Lakshmana tried to convince her that it is the voice of demons, Devi Sita accused him of casting an eye on her. This became unbearable for Lakshmana who started for Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 45 to 46).

13. Ravana coming in the guise of a Sannyasi: When Lakshmana left, Ravana assumed the guise of a Sannyasi and came to the cottage of Devi Sita. He praised her beauty and asked who she was and why she is alone in the forest. Seeing the garb of a Sannayasi, Devi Sita extended her hospitality, eagerly awaiting for Sri Rama to return (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 46).

14. Ravana trying to woo Devi Sita: When Ravana asked about Devi Sita, she told the story of how and why she is in this forest. She then asked about Ravana. Ravana told about his identity and asked her to become his wife in Lanka. Devi Sita praised the qualities of Rama and told him that she is tied with Rama in vow and there can be no comparison between Rama and Ravana. Ravana extolled his own glory and pointed to the hapless situation of Rama. Devi Sita rejected him (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 47 to 48).

14. Ravana abducting Devi Sita: Ravana in anger assumed his own form, abducted Devi Sita and took her in his air chariot. Devi Sita wailed and told the forest deities to inform Rama about her abduction. Devi Sita saw Jatayu and told him also to inform Rama about her abduction (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 49).

15. Jatayu confronting Ravana: Jatayu first gave advice to Ravana about the probity of king, but of no avail. He then fought with Ravana, damaging his chariot and weapons, and injuring him with his beaks and claws. Finally, Ravana took up his sword and cut off the wings of Jatayu. Devi Sita cried hugging Jatayu as if he was his own relative (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 51).

16. Nature lamenting the abduction of Devi Sita: The whole Nature lamented when Devi Sita was being abducted by Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 52).

17. Devi Sita denouncing Ravana: Devi Sita denounced Ravana for his cowardly action of abduction (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 53).

18. Devi Sita dropping her jewellery: While going over Pampa Sarovar region and seeing five vanaras, Devi Sita bundled her jewellery and dropped them without Ravana noticing (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 54).

19. Ravana bringing Devi Sita to Lanka: Ravana brought Devi Sita to Lanka and told the female demons to take care of her and also commissioned some demons to spy over Rama in Janasthana. She showed Devi Sita his beautiful palace with abundant luxuries and tried to woo her again. Devi Sita again praised the qualities of Sri Rama and chastised Ravana severely, predicting his downfall. Ravana in anger ordered the demoness to hold her captive in Ashoka garden and try to remove her pride. He gave a month's time to Devi Sita to accept his proposal or be ready to lose her life (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 55 to 56).

Event: Ravana abducting Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 46 to 49)

20. Sri Rama returning after the abduction of Devi Sita: Sri Rama faced many ill-omens from jackals, deers and birds while hurriedly returning to his hermitage after killing Mareecha (in the form of the golden deer). He became apprehensive that Devi Sita must have been harmed by the demons. In his return path he met Lakshmana and his apprehension became almost a certainty. He chastised Lakshmana for leaving Devi Sita unguarded. Returning to his hermitage he found it empty and searched in various places where Devi Sita used to visit. Not finding Devi Sita he plunged in grief. Sri Rama reprimanded Lakshmana for the dereliction of the duty of guarding Devi Sita even though Lakshmana tried to explain his situation. (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 57 to 59).

21. Sri Rama searching for Devi Sita: Sri Rama lamented and moved about in the forest from tree to tree asking about Devi Sita. He also asked the animals (deers and elephants) about Devi Sita. He asked the Sun and the Air who are the witnesses of all deeds. He asked the river Godavari. Lakshmana tried to console him and give hope, but not finding Devi Sita, Sri Rama plunged in despair (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 60 to 63).



9. Janasthana and outskirts:

Sri Rama searching for Devi Sita Sri Rama performing the last rites of Jatayu Sri Rama encountering demon Kabandha 1. Sri Rama finding the flowers and jewelleries of Devi Sita: Sri Rama searched the banks of river Godavari but could not find Devi Sita. He asked the forest animals. The animals rose to their feet and showed the southward direction and the sky. Getting the hint Sri Rama went in the southward direction. He found the flowers and jewelleries of Devi Sita along with her footprint, a broken chariot and the footprints of demon. Sri Rama became furious like Rudra and took up his bow to destroy the three worlds. Lakshmana pacified Rama and told him to proceed with the search (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 64 to 66).

2. Sri Rama meeting the dying Jatayu: Sri Rama met the wounded Jatayu who told about Ravana abducting Devi Sita. Seeing his condition, Sri Rama hugged him and lamented for him. Jatayu told about Ravana and gave up his life. Sri Rama cremated him like his own relative. Jatayu went to the higher heavenly realm (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 67 to 68).

3. Sri Rama passing through the Krauncha forest: Sri Rama entered the Krauncha forest, three kroshas from Janasthana, while searching for Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 69).

4. Lakshmana encountering demoness Ayomukhi: Sri Rama entered the Kabandha forest region, between Krauncha forest and Matanga ashrama while searching for Devi Sita. A demoness by name Ayomukhi became impressed by Lakshmana and captured him in her embrace saying that he is her lover. Lakshmana cut off her nose, one ear and a breast. The demoness ran away (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 69).

5. Sri Rama encountering demon Kabandha: Sri Rama entered the Kabandha forest while searching for Devi Sita. Lakshmana saw many evil portents and warned Rama. They encountered the gigantic demon Kabandha, who is headless and was like a gigantic bag with a single eye. The demon could stretch his arms upto a distance of one yojana. Kabandha captured Sri Rama and Lakshmana with his arms. They cut off both his arms. Lakshmana then revealed their identity to Kabandha. Kabandha in turn told about the curse of sage Sthulashira and striking with thunderbolt by Indra, due to which he gained the demon form. The sage as well as Indra also said that Sri Rama will liberate him from the curse. On the request of Kabandha, Sri Rama incinerated him. Kabandha regained his celestial form and told Sri Rama about Sugreeva in Rishyamukha Parvata, advising him to enter into an oath of friendship with him. He indicated the route of the Rishyamukha Parvata, told about Matanga ashrama and Shabari and described the beauty of Pampa Sarovar (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 69 to 73).



10. Pampa Sarovar:

Sri Rama meeting Shabari Hanuman carrying Sri Rama 1. Sri Rama visiting Matanga Ashrama: Sri Rama visited the Matanga Ashrama near Pampa Sarovar and met Shabari, a lady of great asceticism. Shabari, who was waiting for Sri Rama, worshipped him and showed him the places in the ashrama sanctified by her spiritual masters (who had left their bodies and ascended to the divine realm, predicting that Sri Rama will come there). Upon the arrival of Sri Rama her ascesis became accomplished and she also ascended to the divine realm casting her body in the presence of Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 74).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Matanga Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 74)

2. Sri Rama visiting Pampa Sarovar: Sri Rama visited Pampa Sarovar on whose bank was the Rishyamukha Parvata. Sri Rama broke into rupture describing the beauty of the Pampa Sarovar along with the surrounding woodlands, and also his own anguish for being separated from Devi Sita. Sugreeva saw Rama and became filled with apprehensions (that they are agents of Vali) (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 75 to Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 1).

Event: Sri Rama describing the beauty of Pampa Sarovar (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 75 to Kishkindha Kanda - 1)
Nature: Trees of Pampa Sarovar (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 75 to Kishkindha Kanda - 1)

3. Sri Rama meeting Hanuman: Seeing Sri Rama and Lakshmana, Sugreeva became apprehensive thinking that they are agents of Vali. He sent Hanuman (from Rishyamukha Parvata to Pampa Sarovar) in the guise of a commoner to assess their true intentions. Hanuman took the form of an ascetic and met Sri Rama and Lakshmana. Hanuman spoke heart-pleasing words. When Sri Rama and Lakshmana were silent, Hanuman revealed his true identity as the minister of Sugreeva and said that Sugreeva wanted friendship with them. Sri Rama praised the knowledge and speech of Hanuman. Lakshmana told Hanuman about their identity and accepted the proposal of friendship. Hanuman carried Sri Rama and Lakshmana on his shoulders to Rishyamukha Parvata where Sugreeva was residing (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 2 to 4).



11. Rishyamukha Parvata and Kishkindha outskirts:

Sri Rama meeting Sugreeva Sugreeva and Vali fighting Sri Rama slaying Vali Sri Rama giving ring to Hanuman Hanuman crossing the ocean Hanuman meeting Devi Sita Sri Rama embracing Hanuman 1. Sri Rama making friendship with Sugreeva: Hanuman told Sugreeva about Sri Rama and suggested him to make friendship with Rama. Sugreeva extended his hand of friendship. Sri Rama accepted it and embraced Sugreeva. Hanuman lit a ritual fire and firmly established the oath of friendship. Sugreeva told Sri Rama about his hapless condition due to Vali. Sri Rama assured Sugreeva that he will eliminate Vali (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 5).

2. Sugreeva showing the jewellery of Devi Sita: Sugreeva in-turn assured Sri Rama and vowed to bring back Devi Sita. He said that Devi Sita dropped her jewellery seeing him with a group of vanaras (while she was passing over the Rishyamukha Parvata). Sugreeva showed those jewellery to Sri Rama to identify them. Seeing the jewellery of Devi Sita, Sri Rama was filled with emotion. Sugreeva consoled Sri Rama. Sri Rama steadied himself and asked Sugreeva to tell how he can help him (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 6 to 7).

3. Sri Rama hearing the story of Sugreeva: Sri Rama asked Sugreeva to tell the cause of his enmity with Vali. Sugreeva told his story to Sri Rama. Sugreeva told about demon Mayavi who challenged Vali and then out of fear entered a cave. Sugreeva stayed guard for one year, and then seeing blood coming out, closed the cave with a huge boulder and returned to the kingdom. Sugreeva became the king. Vali returned and banishes Sugreeva and also took his wife. Sri Rama assured Sugreeva. (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 8 to 10).

4. Sri Rama hearing about the strength of Vali: Sugreeva narrated the strength of Vali by describing how he slayed the enormous buffalo-demon Dundubhi. Sugreeva also narrated the curse of sage Matanga due to which Vali cannot enter the Rishyamukha Parvata where Sugreeva is staying (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 11).

5. Sri Rama displaying his strength to assure Sugreeva: Sugreeva became doubtful how Sri Rama can match Vali in strength. He wanted to see the strength of Sri Rama (by kicking the skeleton of demon Dundubhi and perforating a Sala tree with a single arrow). Sri Rama flung the skeleton of Dundubhi with his foot ten yojanas away. Then with a single arrow he perforated seven Sala trees together. The arrow entered the earth after passing through a mountain and then coming out of the earth returned to his quiver. Sugreeva in astonishment bowed to Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 11 to 12).

6. Sri Rama making Sugreeva fight with Vali (first duel): Sri Rama told Sugreeva to invite Vali for a duel. They all go to Kishkindha. Sugreeva invited Vali for a duel but Sri Rama could not differentiate between Vali and Sugreeva since they are very similar in appearance. So he did not release his arrow. Vali defeated Sugreeva and chased him away in the Rishyamukha Parvata. Sri Rama consoled Sugreeva and removed his misunderstanding. To put a mark of differentiation on Sugreeva, he then adorned him with a flower garland of Gaja creeper. They again set forth for Kishkindha (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 12).

7. Sri Rama seeing the Saptajana ashrama: On the way to Kishkindha, Sri Rama saw the Saptajana ashrama where seven sages performed penance with their heads upside-down for seven hundred years and attained the heavenly realm. The ashrama shined with a divine aura. Sri Rama offered salutations to the sages with joined palms (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 13).

8. Sri Rama slaying Vali during the second duel of Sugreeva: Sri Rama assured Sugreeva about his promise and Sugreeva again challenged Vali for a duel. Tara informed Vali about Sri Rama and advised him to befriend Sugreeva. Vali ignored her advice and rushed out to fight with Sugreeva. During the fight Vali overpowered Sugreeva and Sugreeva helplessly searched for Sri Rama. Sri Rama stretched his bow and brought down Vali with a single arrow. Vali accused Sri Rama for killing him from a hiding without directly challenging him in a combat. Sri Rama answered Vali giving the reasons for his act of killing for upholding Dharma. Sri Rama pointed out the sin of Vali of misbehaving with Sugreeva's wife Ruma who should have been treated as a daughter-in-law. Sri Rama said that it is very difficult to understand the subtle nuances of Dharma followed by a righteous person. Hearing the words of Sri Rama, Vali realised his sins and became repentant. He asked for forgiveness from Sri Rama and requested him to give refuge to his son Angada and wife Tara. Sri Rama assured him and told him to be free of remorse, because the punishment has brought an end to his sins. Tara came there and wailed, followed by Angada and other wives of Vali. Tara decided to self-immolate herself. Hanuman tried to console her saying Anagada will be anointed as the king, but Tara preferred self-immolation along with her husband. Vali gave his pendant to Sugreeva and told him to take care of Angada and fulfil the mission of Sri Rama. Vali also told Sugreeva to listen to the advice of Tara who is of clear judgement. Vali passed away. Tara lamented again. Sugreeva became repentant for the sin of killing his own brother and decided to enter the fire. Tara requested Sri Rama to kill her with the same arrow so that she can reach the higher abode with her husband. Sri Rama consoled Tara, then ordered Sugreeva to perform the funeral ceremony of Vali befitting a king. Sugreeva took control of the situation and arranged for the funeral ceremony (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 14 to 25).

9. Sri Rama instructing to anoint Sugreeva as king and Angada as crown-prince: On the instruction of Sri Rama the vanaras entered the cave city of Kishkindha and anointed Sugreeva as king and Angada as crown-prince. Sri Rama himself did not attend the ceremony as he is not supposed to enter towns and cities during his forest exile (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 26).



12. Mount Prasavana (Kishkindha outskirts):

Sri Rama 1. Sri Rama staying at Mount Prasavana: Sri Rama stayed at Mount Prasavana in a spacious cave during the four months of the rainy season. He described the beauty of the mountain, river and forest, but sometimes fell into despondency due to the lack of Devi Sita. Lakshmana adviced Sri Rama to shed his despondency and wait with a cheerful mind for the autumn month to arrive (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 27)

2. Sri Rama describing the beauty of the Rainy season: Staying at Mount Prasavana, Sri Rama described the beauty of the Rainy season (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 28)

3. Hanuman meeting Sugreeva: Hanuman met Sugreeva and advised him to prepare for the search of Devi Sita. Upon getting enthroned as king, Sugreeva started overindulging in pleasures forgetting the mission of Sri Rama. Hearing the words of Hanuman, Sugreeva ordered Nila to gather the vanaras within fifteen days. However, after issuing the orders Sugreeva again entered the palace chambers for indulging in pleasures (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 29)

4. Sri Rama sending Lakshmana to Sugreeva during Autumn: Autumn season arrived. Sri Rama praised the Autumn season but is filled with grief for the loss of Devi Sita and also anger for not seeing any initiative from Sugreeva. He sent Lakshmana to Sugreeva to suitably remind and warn him for ignoring his promise. Lakshmana went to Kishkindha assuming an appearance of great fury. Sugreeva initially could not understand the situation because he was inebriated and in a pleasure-seeking mood. The ministers brought him to senses. Hanuman explained him the cause of anger of Lakshmana. Sugreeva sent Tara to appease Lakshmana. Tara, after pacifying Lakshmana, invited him inside. Sugreeva asked for forgiveness. Lakshmana was pacified and asked Sugreeva to come with him and meet Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 30 to 36)

5. Sugreeva ordering to gather all the vanaras: Sugreeva ordered Hanuman to gather all the vanaras from different mountains like Mahendra, Himalaya, Vindhya, Kailash, Mandara, Anjana and Meru; and also from other places. The vanaras started assembling there when Lakshmana was still with him. Some vanaras brought divine fruits and flowers from Himalayas as gifts to Sugreeva (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 37)

6. Sugreeva going to Sri Rama: Sugreeva then went to Sri Rama with Lakshmana. Sri Rama told Sugreeva that a king should divide his time in the practice of Dharma, Artha and Kama (Righteousness, Prosperity and Pleasure) and not engross himself in Kama alone. Sugreeva informed Sri Rama that the vanaras are assembling there from all directions. Sri Rama became glad. In the meantime several vanara chiefs started gathering there along with their armies. They are Shatabali, the father of Tara (Sushena), the father of Ruma, Kesari the father of Hanuman, Gavaksha, Dhumra, Panasa, Nila, Gavaya, Darimukha, Mainda, Dwivida, Gaja, Risharaja Jambavanta, Rumana, Gandhamadana, Angada, Tara, Indrajanu, Rambha, Durmukha, Hanuman, Nala, Dadhimukha, Sharabha, Kumuda, Vahani and others (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 38 to 39)

7. Sugreeva ordering eastern search: Then with the permission of Sri Rama Sugreeva sent vanaras under the leadership of Vinata for the eastern search. He asked them to search:
- River-sides of Bhagarathi, Sarayu, Kaushiki, Yamuna, Saraswati, Sindhu, Shona, Mahi and Kalamahi
- Provinces of Brahmamala, Videha, Malava, Kashi, Koshala, Magadha, Pundra, Anga and Koshakara
- Mount Mandara where some horrible-looking creatures stay
- Yava island and the Shishira mountain
- Cross various oceans and islands and come to Lohita ocean having a huge Kuta-Shalmali tree
- Island surrounded by the Kshira ocean; the island having the white mountain Rishabha and lake Sudarshana
- Island surrounded by the sweet-water ocean, where there is a fire in the form of a horse-mouth created by the anger of sage Aurasa; and a golden mountain called Jatarupa on the top of which the thousand-hooded Ananta is bearing the Earth
- Udaya mountain with Shala, Tala, Tamala and Karnikara trees and having a peak named Saumanasa, where the Trivikrama Avatara placed his first foot (and his second foot at mount Meru). There abides the sages Vaikhanasa and Valakhilyas. That is the Sudarshana island. The Udaya mountain is the eastern-most limit of search and is the gateway from Earth to Heaven from where the Sun rises.
Sugreeva allots a month's time for the eastern search (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 40)

8. Sugreeva ordering southern search: Then Sugreeva sent vanaras under the leadership of Angada for the southern search. He asked them to search:
- The Vindhya mountains
- River banks of Narmada, Godavari, Krishnaveni, Mahanadi and Varada
- Provinces of Mekhala, Utkala, Dasharna, Avanti, Vidharbha and Mahisha
- Provinces of Vanga, Kalinga and Kaushika
- Dandaka forest and provinces of Andhra, Pundra, Chola, Pandhya and Kerala
- Mount Malaya, river Kaveri and river Tamrapani
- Southern ocean and mount Mahendra, and then the island where Ravana stays
- Mountains Pushpitaka beyond the island, and then mountain Suryavan, mountain Vaidyuta, mountain Kunjara (with abode of sage Agastya), city Bhogavati (abode of snakes) and mountain Rishabha
- Beyond mountain Rishabha is the terminus of the Earth and the abode of Yama (which is not to be searched)
Sugreeva alloted a month's time for the southern search (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 41)

9. Sugreeva ordering western search: Then Sugreeva sent vanaras under the leadership of Sushena (father of Tara and son of sage Mareecha) for the western search. He asked them to search:
- The provinces of Saurashtra, Bahlika, Chandrachitra
- Western Ocean seashore having cities like Muraci, Jatapura, Avanti, Angalepa and forest of Alakshita
- Mountain Hemagiri on the confluence of river Sindhu and the Ocean
- Mountain Pariyatra within the Ocean
- Mountain Vajra within the Ocean
- Mountain Chakravana within the Ocean
- Mountain Varaha within the Ocean with the city Pragjyotisha
- Mountain Meghavanta
- A range of sixty-thousand mountains having Mount Meru
- Mountain Ashtagiri
Sugreeva alloted a month's time for the southern search (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 42)

10. Sugreeva ordering northern search: Then Sugreeva sent vanaras under the leadership of Shatabali for the northern search. He asked them to search:
- The provinces of Mleccha, Pulinda, Surashena, Prasthala, Bharata, Kuru, Madraka, Kambhoja, Yavana and Darada
- The Himalayan region
- Hermitage of Soma and mountain Kala
- Mountain Sudarshana
- Mountain Devashakha
- Mount Kailasha after crossing a vacant stretch of land and the lake there
- Mount Krauncha
- Mount Kama and Mount Manasa
- Mount Mainaka
- Hermitages of Siddhas, Vaikhanasas and Valakhilyas
- River Shailoda
- Uttara Kuru
- Northern Ocean and Mount Soma within it (where the Trinity resides)
(Sugreeva alloted a month's time for the northern search) (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 43)

11. Sri Rama giving his ring to Hanuman: Sri Rama gave his ring to Hanuman (to enable Hanuman to identify himself as the messenger of Sri Rama when he met Devi Sita) (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 44)

12. The vanaras starting their search: The vanaras after receiving the orders of Sugreeva started their search for Devi Sita filled with enthusiasm. Sri Rama stayed on at mount Prasavana waiting for their return (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 45)

13. Sri Rama enquiring Sugreeva about his knowledge of the Earth: Sri Rama enquired Sugreeva how he attained the knowledge of the whole geography of the Earth. Sugreeva replied that when he was chased by Vali he fled in all the directions and therefore had intimate knowledge of the Earth (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 46)

14. Vanara chiefs returning from East, North and West: The vanara chiefs returned from East, North and West within a month and informed Sugreeva that Devi Sita was not found in those directions. They hopefully waited for Hanuman since Hanuman went in the direction where Devi Sita was taken during abduction (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 47)



13. The search of Hanuman (Vindhya region, Southern sea and Lanka):

Bhakta Hanuman 1. Hanuman searching the Vindhya region: Hanuman with the troops of vanaras under the leadership of Anga searched the caves and forests of the Vindhya region. The search included several forests including the forest which became uninhabitable due to the curse of sage Kandu. Angada killed a demon thinking him to be Ravana. However, not finding Devi Sita, the vanaras became crestfallen. Angada encouraged the vanaras and they again searched the Vindhya region. Finally, not finding Devi Sita they descended to the plains (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 48 to 49)

2. Hanuman entering Riksha cavity and meeting Swayamprabha: The time allotted by Sugreeva passed in searching the Vindhya region and Devi Sita was still not found. Filled with hunger and thirst, one day the vanaras came to the entrance of Riksha cavity. They saw trees inside and waterfowls exiting with body drenched in water. Even though apprehensive, the vanaras entered the cavity on the advice of Hanuman. After passing through darkness, they came to a place of light which was filled with golden trees, lakes and mansions. There they see a saintly lady. Hanuman enquired the lady about the cave. The saintly lady introduced herself as Shyamprabha, the daughter of Merusavarni. She said that the cave was created by demon Maya. However Indra killed Maya when he was engaged in affairs with an apsara named Hema. Brahma bestowed that cave to Hema and she was safeguarding that place for her friend Hema. Shyamprabha extended her hospitality to the vanaras and asked about their purpose. Hanuman told their purpose and requested her to help them to exit the cavity. Since exiting the cavity alive is not possible, Shyamprabha used her ascetic power and transported the vanaras to the southern shore near mount Prasavana (in Vindhya mountain range) (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 50 to 52)

3. Angada proposing fast-unto-death: Seeing the unending seashore and that the time allotted by Sugreeva for the search had elapsed, Angada proposed fast-unto-death, because upon returning without any news of Devi Sita, Sugreeva is sure to punish them. Vanara Tara proposed that they return to Riksha cavity and spend their lives there. Other vanaras also proposed to find a solution whereby they can live (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 53)

4. Hanuman proposing returning to Sugreeva: Hanuman explained that defecting from Sugreeva and living in Riksha cave is not a good idea. Firstly, arrows of Rama and Lakshmana can reach there. Secondly, the vanaras will not live long separated from their families and will finally desert him. Thirdly, it does not befit a brave like him to live inside a hideout. Hanuman proposed that they return to Sugreeva who will not punish them understanding their situation (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 54)

5. Angada deciding to fast-unto-death: Angada said that Sugreeva is not to be believed since he has done many misdeeds in the past. He blocked the entrance of the cave hole when his father was fighting demon Dundibhi. He took away his mother Tara. He killed his father through Rama. He even forgot the help of Rama and is only searching for Devi Sita out of fear of Lakshmana. Therefore he is not going to return to Sugreeva. Saying this Angada layed on the Darbha grass on the seashore for fast-unto-death. Other vanaras also follow him (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 55)

6. Vanaras meeting Sampati: Sampati, the brother of Jatayu (who abided on that mountain-top), listened to the vanaras glorifying the sacrifice of Jatayu. He requested the vanaras to bring him down from the mountain-top so that he can listen more about Jatayu. The vanaras brought him down and Angada narrated their plight to him. Sampati told his story of how his wings got burnt when he and brother Jatayu once playfully tried to reach the Sun and he trying to protect Jatayu with his wings. Sampati offered water oblations for his brother and then narrated that he has seen Devi Sita while she was being abducted by Ravana and told about Lanka where Devi Sita is lodged. The vanaras became instilled with a new hope. Sampati also told how his son Suparshva saw Ravana and Devi Sita in the sky. Sampati told about sage Nishakara who predicted that he will get back his wings when he gives the information of Devi Sita to the vanaras who will come there (while searching for Devi Sita). Sage Nishakara also gave temporary small wings to Sampati for survival till that time. After Sampati performed the service of Rama by giving the information of Devi Sita to the vanaras, he regained his new wings and vitality and flew off joyfully. The vanaras proceeded towards the southern diection with new hope (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 56 to 63)

7. Vanaras assembling at the sea shore: The vanaras then came to the sea shore and camped there. But seeing the endless ocean they fell in despair thinking how to cross the ocean. Angada encouraged them and asked the vanaras who among them can cross the ocean of hundred yojanas and accomplish their task. No one came forward. Angada then tried to assess the capability of the vanaras separately. Each vanara told about his capability which fell short of hundred yojanas. Jambavanta then proceeded to motivate Hanuman who was sitting comfortably in a lonely place (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 64 to 65)

8. Jambavanta motivating Hanuman: Jambavanta then motivated Hanuman. Jambavanta compared his strength to Garuda. Jambavanta told the story of the birth of Hanuman. Anjana, an apsara had to take birth on the earth as a vanara due to a curse. Once the Air-god Pavana was attracted by her beauty and through him Anjana bore the great son Hanuman. Once during childhood Hanuman tried to eat the Sun thinking it to be a fruit (and flown three hundred yojanas towards it). Indra became angry and hit him with a thunderbolt. Since his left Hanu (cheekbone) was broken he was known as Hanuman. The Air-god became angry and stopped circulating in the three worlds. The gods supplicated the Air-god. Brahma gave a boon that Hanuman will not be destroyed by any weapon. Indra then gave the boon that death will occur to him only by his will. Narrating this story Jambavanta urged Hanuman to save the vanaras from this predicament by showing his prowess. Hanuman rose and assumed his huge form (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 66)

9. Hanuman asserting his capabilities: Motivated by Jambavanta, Hanuman then asserted his capabilities. He said that he can shake the mountains and splash the waters of the ocean. He can fly over thousand yojanas at a stretch. Hanuman increased the size of his body and went to the top of mount Mahendra to take a leap. The vanaras were awed and over-joyed, and as if new life has been instilled in their bodies. Jambavanta compared the mission of Hanuman to the sadhana of Rishis, and the vanaras will be waiting on the other side of the sea shore in yogic postures for Hanuman to return (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 67)

10. Hanuman taking a leap over the ocean: Hanuman increased the size of his body and got ready to take a leap over the ocean. He saluted the Sun-God, Air-God, Indra and other devas. When he pressed his feet on the mountain to take his leap, the Mahendra mountain was agitated. It shed the flowers of its trees and the animals and demi-gods started leaving their places. The ascetics from the sky declared the mission of Hanuman (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 1)

11. Mountain Mainaka rising up: Samudra deva thought that the oceans were created by Sagara of Sri Rama's dynasty. Therefore he needs to help Hanuman who is on the mission of Sri Rama. Samudra deva told mount Mainaka to rise up to give rest to Hanuman. Mainaka rose up and greeted Hanuman. He said that apart from the Ocean god's request, he himself is also indebted to Vayu deva who saved his wings when Indra tried to cut them. Mainaka requested Hanuman to take rest on his peaks. Hanuman touched the mountain with his hands but did not stop over to take rest neglecting his duties. Hanuman rose up still higher and crosses over the Mainaka mountain (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 1)

12. Surasa obstructing Hanuman: The Devas requested Surasa, the mother of Nagas to assume the form of a demoness and obstruct the path of Hanuman to test him. Surasa assumed the huge form of a demoness and obstructed the path of Hanuman. She said that according to Lord Brahma's boon, no one can cross her without entering her mouth. Hanuman in anger increased the size of his body spanning several yojanas. However Surasa also opened her mouth and kept increasing its size and obstructed the path of Hanuman. Hanuman then suddenly became small like a thumb, quickly entered the mouth of Surasa and came out. Surasa assumed her normal form and blessed Hanuman (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 1)

13. Hanuman slaying demoness Simhika: Demoness Simhika captured the shadow of Hanuman to get him as food and stop his flight. Hanuman increased the size of his body. Simhika opened her mouth and also increased its size to devour Hanuman. Hanuman entered the mouth of Simhika and going inside tore her heart with his finger-nails. Simhika died and fell inside the ocean. The creatures of the ocean thanked Hanuman (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 1)

14. Hanuman reaching Lanka: Hanuman reached the island of Lanka in the region of the Malaya mountain and reducing his size alighted on the top of mount Lamba (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 1)

15. Hanuman entering Lanka: Hanuman saw the city of Lanka located on the peak of Mount Trikuta, and protected by boundary wall. The city which was architected by Vishwakarma consisted of huge mansions which were richly decorated, and also had forests and lakes. The city was protected by rakshasas armed with various weapons. Seeing the highly protected and impenetrable city of Lanka, Hanuman was in despair for sometime thinking about the prospect of Sri Rama. To avoid being detected by rakshasas, Hanuman assumed a small form of the size of a cat and entered the city at night (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 2)

16. Hanuman encountering demoness Lanka: Demoness Lanka, the guardian protector of the city of Lanka, detected Hanuman and rose up. Hanuman told her that he wanted to see the city of Lanka. Lanka obstructed and hit Hanuman. Hanuman hit back and made her fall. Lanka told of a prediction of Lord Brahma that the day she will be defeated by a vanara who came in search of Devi Sita, the end of rakshasas will come. Knowing that the time of that prediction has arrived, Lanka told Hanuman to move freely and search for Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 3)

17. Hanuman searching Lanka and Ravana's palace: Hanuman entered the beautiful city of Lanka crossing over the boundary wall at night. He passed near various beautiful buildings. He heard various musical instruments and sounds of laughter. He heard ritual chanting of the Vedas and also rakshasas praising Ravana. He saw guards of Ravana carrying various weapons. Then Hanuman entered the city-palace of Ravana on the top of the hill with a protective compound wall and moat around it. Hanuman saw great opulence with elephants and horses, jewelleries and gems and filled with chantings and music. Hanuman moved through the mansions of Prahasta, Mahaparshva, Kumbhakarna, Vibhisana, Mahodara, Virupaksha, Vidyutjihva, Suka, Sarana, Indrajit, Jambumali, Sumali, Rashmiketu, Suryaketu, Vajrakaya, Dhumra, Sampati, Vidyutrupa, Bhima, Ghana, Vighana, Sukanabha, Vakra, Satha, Vikata, Hrashyakarna, Damstra, Roma, Yuddhanmatya, Dhwajagriva, Indrajihva, Hastimukha, Karala, Pishaca, Shonitaksha etc. Hanuman then entered the palace of Ravana. Hanuman saw various army divisions protecting the palace. Hanuman saw various bowers for pleasure which were richly decorated. Hanuman saw the beautiful Pushpaka Vimana stationed within the palace-premises of Ravana. Hanuman saw the various wives of Ravana who surrendered to Ravana by their own will (unlike Devi Sita who was brought forcefully). Hanuman entered the inner chamber of Ravana and saw Ravana sleeping. Hanuman saw various women sleeping hugging various musical instruments which they were playing during the night. Hanuman then saw Mandodari sleeping alone on one side. Seeing her graceful appearance Hanuman temporarily thought that she was Devi Sita, but then rejected the thought because Devi Sita will not sleep in the palace-chamber of Ravana. Not finding Devi Sita, Hanuman became depressed but continued his search in all the other houses. Still not finding Devi Sita, Hanuman decided not to return without seeing her because it will cause great grief to others. Finally Hanuman saluted Sri Rama, Lakshmana and other Devas and entered the Ashoka Vana (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 4 to 13)

18. Hanuman searching the Ashoka Vana: Hanuman then entered the Ashoka Vana and became impressed by its beauty. It was decorated with various trees laden with fruits and flowers. It was decorated with ponds inlaid with gems and visited by various birds. Hanuman thought that Devi Sita must be coming to these ponds which must be dear to her (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 14)

19. Hanuman seeing Devi Sita: Hanuman searched the Ashoka Vana and saw Devi Sita. She was emaciated for not taking food and full of grief. Her eyes were full of tears and she was helplessly looking here and there, surrounded by demonesses. From her beauty and grace (although covered with dust), Hanuman recognised her to be Devi Sita and became sad seeing her pitiable condition, but became happy at finding her at last. Hanuman saw Ravana entering the Ashoka garden followed by his wives during the early dawn. Ravana tried to entice Devi Sita with offers of jewellery, wealth. comfort and power. Devi Sita told Ravana (holding a straw between them) to become friend of Rama and return her, and warned that he will be slain otherwise and Lanka will be destroyed. Ravana gave two months time to Devi Sita, either to surrender or get killed. He ordered the demonesses to bring her under his control by any means. Getting orders from Ravana the demonesses started frightening and persuaded Devi Sita to marry Ravana. Devi Sita stuck to her devotion to husband and cited examples of devotion of Sachi to Indra, Arundhati to Vasistha, Rohini to Chandra, Lopamudra to Agastya, Sukanya to Chyavana, Savitri to Satyavana, Srimati to Kapila, Madayanti to Saudasa, Keshini to Sagara and Damayanti to Nala. The demonesses displayed further anger and threatened to eat her that very moment. Devi Sita wailed and decided to give up her life and also warned the demonesses that the city of Lanka will get destroyed (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 15 to 26)

20. Trijata telling her dream: When the demonesses of Ravana kept on harassing Devi Sita, Trijata stopped them and told about her dream. She saw Rama and Sita wearing white clothes and garlands ascending the sky in a palanquin of swans. On the other hand she saw Ravana in red clothes with a confused mind sinking inside the ground. She saw indications of the destruction of Lanka and the demons except Vibhisana. Trijata told the demonesses that Sita is not an ordinary woman, so she should not be tortured but entreated (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 27)

21. Devi Sita seeing good omens while trying to end her life: Devi Sita recollected the time limit and two months given by Ravana and thought of herself as a prisoner sentenced to death. In grief she tried to end her life by hanging with the braid of her own hair. Then some good omens appeared before her. Her left eye quivered. Her left shoulder and left thigh also quivered. Devi Sita became joyful (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 28 to 29)

22. Hanuman pondering about his course of action: Hanuman pondered about his course of action. He thought that he should console Devi Sita, else she will give up her life. But while trying to console her the demonesses may see him and creating a great commotion will try to kill him. Also, after seeing him, Devi Sita may get frightened and start screaming, thinking him to be Ravana in guise. Thinking about various options, Hanuman decided that he will eulogise Rama which will not create any fear in Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 30)

23. Hanuman narrating the story of Rama: Hanuman, sitting on a Shimshapa tree, narrated the story of Rama. He eulogised Rama. He mentioned how Devi Sita was abducted by Ravana. He mentioned how Rama met Sugreeva and started searching for Devi Sita in all directions. Devi Sita heard the words of Hanuman and became filled with joy. She spotted Hanuman on the Shimshapa tree (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 31)

24. Hanuman meeting Devi Sita: Seeing Hanuman perched on the Shimshapa tree, Devi Sita became surprised. She prayed to Lord Brihaspati and others that the words of Hanuman become true. Hanuman came down and humbly asked her whether she was Devi Sita. Devi Sita told her story to Hanuman. Hanuman revealed himself as a messenger of Sri Rama. However Devi Sita started suspecting Hanuman as Ravana in disguise. Hanuman dispelled her suspicion by narrating the glories of Sri Rama and the entire story of how he met Rama. Hanuman, further showed the ring of Rama to Devi Sita and told her that Rama will soon come here with a huge army of vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 32 to 36)

25. Hanuman proposing to take Devi Sita. Sita declining: Hanuman proposed to Devi Sita to carry her on his back to Rama at that very moment. Devi Sita declined citing various reasons. Firstly, the demons will follow Hanuman and engage him in a battle in the sky. She will then fall down from his back and taken away by the demons who will hide her in a very secret place. Secondly, she cannot touch any other man apart from Rama, wilfully. Devi Sita instead asked Hanuman to bring Rama to Lanka within two months, the time alloted by Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 37)

26. Hanuman asking for a token of remembrance: Hanuman then asked Devi Sita to give him a token of remembrance. Devi Sita told him the secret story of a crow, the son of Indra, who pecked her in the forest. Rama, out of fury created a Brahma Astra out of a blade of grass and discharged it towards the crow. The crow flew around the three worlds but could not get shelter. Finally he took refuge of Sri Rama. Rama saved his life but the Brahma Astra destroyed his right eye. Devi Sita further gave Hanuman her Chudamani (head-jewel) as a token of remembrance. Devi Sita expressed her doubt about how Rama and Lakshmana will cross the ocean and come to Lanka. Hanuman consoled her citing that the army of Sugreeva has many valiant vanaras who will accomplish the task. As another token of remembrance Devi Sita also told the secret story that once when a Tilaka mark was effaced from her forehead, Rama created another mark on her cheek. Hanuman left Devi Sita and went towards the northern direction (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 38 to 40)

27. Hanuman destroying the Ashoka Vana: Hanuman decided to return to Sugreeva only after assessing the strength of the enemy. He decided to know more about Ravana and his armies. To get the attention of Ravana, Hanuman started destroying the garden of Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 41)

28. Hanuman slaying the Kinkaras: The demonesses guarding Devi Sita asks her about Hanuman. Devi Sita feigned ignorance. They then reported the incident of the destruction of Ashoka vana to Ravana. Becoming angry, Ravana sent eight thousand Kinkaras. Hanuman assuming a huge form killed them with an iron rod. (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 42)

29. Hanuman destroying the sanctuary of the demons: After killing the Kinkaras, Hanuman destroyed the sacred sanctuary of the demons assuming a gigantic form. He killed the guards with an iron pillar who came to fight with him (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 43)

30. Hanuman slaying Jambumali: Ravana then sent Jambumali, the son of Prahasta. Jambumali hit Hanuman with several arrows. Hanuman threw a huge rock towards Jambumali which he crushed with his arrows. Hanuman then uprooted a large Sal tree and threw towards Jambumali. The demon split that too with his arrows. Hanuman finally destroyed Jambumali throwing a huge iron rod (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 44)

31. Hanuman slaying the seven sons of minister: Ravana then sent the seven sons of his chief minister to capture Hanuman. They came with a huge army and filled the sky with their arrows. Hanuman made their arrows useless and using only his palms, fist, nails and thighs killed them (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 45)

32. Hanuman slaying the five army generals: Ravana then sent five army generals - Virupaksa, Yupaksha, Durdhara, Praghasa and Vasakarna. Ravana told that Hanuman may not be an ordinary vanara but an evil spirit created by Indra. Durdhara discharged arrows at Hanuman. Hanuman assuming a gigantic form, fell on his chariot while fighting in the air and killed him. Hanuman killed Virupaksha and Yupaksha by uprooting a Sala tree and striking them with it. When Praghasa and Vasakarna wounded Hanuman with their weapons, Hanuman removed a part of the mountain and killed them with it. Hanuman then destroyed the remaining army of the demons and again stationed himself for fight (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 46)

33. Hanuman slaying Aksha: Ravana then sent Aksha, his own son to fight with Hanuman. Aksha was endowed with the power of penance and had a chariot which moved in the sky. He was composed in mind and had great prowess. A great fight ensued between Hanuman and Aksha. Hanuman mentally praised Aksha for his composed attitude and prowess, but decided to kill him to accomplish his purpose. He therefore destroyed his chariot in the sky with his hands. Aksha tried to depart to heaven by the power of his penance. Hanuman caught him and spinning him, killed him by thrashing on the ground (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 47)

34. Hanuman encountering Indrajit: Ravana then sent his son Indrajit who was foremost in warfare and the use of missiles, and also endowed with penance. A great battle ensued between Hanuman and Indrajit. The two could not find weaknesses of each other. Hanuman avoided all the arrows discharged by Indrajit with the speed of wind. Indrajit understood that Hanuman cannot be defeated by normal weapons. He therefore discharged the Brahma Astra. Hanuman surrendered to the Astra of Brahma (to meet Ravana), got tied by it and fell down motionless. The demons tie Hanuman with bark of trees and dragged him to Ravana. Since Hanuman is tied by other means, the Brahma Astra got released. Hanuman met Ravana. Enquired by the ministers, he told that he is the envoy of Sugreeva (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 48)

35. Hanuman meeting Ravana: Hanuman met Ravana after being dragged to his court by the demons. He was surprised to see the splendour of Ravana with ten heads and many arms, with well-adorned figure and great opulence. He thought what strength, courage, splendour and auspicious marks this demon had, but all being turned in the path of unrighteousness. Ravana was attended by ministers Durdhara, Prahasta, Mahaparshva and Nikumba. Hanuman observed Ravana attentively. Ravana enquired through his minister who he was and what was his motive in destroying the pleasure garden. Hanuman said that he destroyed the garden to meet Ravana and he attacked the demons only to protect himself. Hanuman also said that he is incapable of being bound by any missile by the boon of Lord Brahma and he only surrendered to the missile to see Ravana. Hanuman finally said that he is the messenger of Rama of unlimited splendour. He told the story of Rama and warned Ravana that Rama will destroy him if Devi Sita is not restored. So it is in his interest and interest of his subjects to tread the righteous path and release Devi Sita. Ravana in anger ordered the killing of Hanuman. Vibhisana advised Ravana from desisting to kill a messenger which is against scriptural injunctions. He said that the messenger is only communicating the words of the master and if he is killed no one will be able to cross the ocean and communicate back. On the other hand, Ravana needs to punish the two princes who sent Hanuman (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 49 to 52)

35. Ravana ordering to set fire on the tail of Hanuman: Hearing the words of Vibhisana, Ravana ordered to burn the tail of Hanuman which is a thing of pride for the vanaras. He ordered that Hanuman to be marched on the roads with his burnt tail. As ordered, the demons tie cloth rugs on the tail of Hanuman and sets fire on it. Hanuman decided to bear with the punishment to see Lanka again during the day time. The demons drag Hanuman through the roads of Lanka sounding kettle-drums. The demonesses guarding Devi Sita informed her about the burning of Hanuman's tail. Devi Sita prayed to the Fire God to become cool to Hanuman. Listening to the prayers of Devi Sita, the fire became cool to Hanuman. Hanuman was also surpised that the fire was not burning him and decided that it must be due to Devi Sita and Rama. Then reaching the city gate, Hanuman killed the security guards with iron rods. (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 53)

36. Hanuman setting fire to Lanka: Hanuman then pondered over his mission and decided to set fire to Lanka. He jumped from house to house and set them on fire. He however, spares the house of Vibhisana. The wind swiftly scattered the fire engulfing the whole of Lanka. The demons started running helter-skelter to save their lives and thought of Hanuman as the fire of destruction. The celestials eulogised Hanuman (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 54)

37. Hanuman visiting Devi Sita again: Hanuman repented that by his rashful action he has also burnt Devi Sita. He thought of giving up his life. Then he saw many good omens and heard the words of celestials that Devi Sita is not burnt. Hanuman thought that the fire was cool on him only due to the purity of Rama and Sita, so she cannot be burnt. He again visited Devi Sita and consoled her. Then Hanuman ascended mount Arishta and lept over the ocean (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 55 to 56)

38. Hanuman returning to mount Mahendra: Flying over the ocean Hanuman touched mount Mainaka and before reaching mount Mahendra gave out a big roar. From his roar of joy, Jambavan told the other vanaras that Hanuman was successful in his mission. Hanuman then got down on mount Mahendra and saluted Jambavan and Angada. He told them that he has seen Devi Sita, emaciated due to the devotion to her husband. The vanaras were thrilled with joy. Asked by Jambavan, Hanuman narrated the entire story of his mission in Lanka in details. He described the pitiable condition of Devi Sita and said that he himself is sufficient to destroy Lanka and Ravana, what to say when accompanied by other valorous vanaras. Angada suggested that they themselves attack Lanka and take back Devi Sita. However, Jambavan says that they should only follow what Sri Rama decided after hearing their story (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 57 to 60)

39. Vanaras enjoying at Madhuvana: The vanaras then went to Madhuvana, a garden filled with honey and start enjoying themselves after drinking the honey. The Madhuvana garden was dear to Sugreeva and was protected by his maternal uncle Dadhimukha. When the guards of Dadhimukha tried to protect the garden from the vanaras they injure him with nails and fists. When Dadhimukha came to protect the garden, Angada subdued him. Dadhimukha decided to report to Sugreeva (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 61 to 62)

40. Dadhimukha reporting to Sugreeva: Dadhimukha reported the exploits of the vanaras to Sugreeva. Sugreeva told Sri Rama and Lakshmana that the vanaras must have accomplished their task and therefore enjoying the honey in Madhuvana. Sugreeva delightfully pardoned the vanaras and asked Dadhimukha to send the vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 63)

41. Hanuman reporting about Devi Sita to Sri Rama: Dadhimukha went to Madhuvana and saluted the vanaras and told that Sugreeva wanted to see them. The vanaras returned to Sugreeva with Angada as the leader. Hanuman informed that Devi Sita was seen, bringing delight to all. Being urged by Sri Rama, Hanuman then described about how Devi Sita is held captive in the Ashoka garden, her steadfast devotion towards Sri Rama and about the token of remembrance she gave him. Hanuman also informed about Devi Sita giving the time limit of a month for survival. Rama burst into tears seeing the chudamani sent by Devi Sita and said that it is like obtaining the vision of Sita herself. Rama urged Hanuman to repeat the words of Devi Sita so that he can survive by hearing her words. Hanuman told the incident of the crow (who was son of Indra) at Chitrakoota which pecked Devi Sita and due to which Sri Rama send a Brahma astra made out of Kusha grass. Hanuman also told Sri Rama about the doubt expressed by Devi Sita as to how they will cross the ocean and his reply consoling her (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 64 to 68)

42. Sri Rama embracing Hanuman: Sri Rama became glad to hear the words of Hanuman and said that there is none other than Garuda, Wind-god and Hanuman who can cross the mighty ocean; and then after entering the kingdom of Lanka which is guarded by demons return alive; and further attack the kingdom itelf and return alive. Sri Rama then embraced Hanuman saying that a great service has been done by Hanuman and he can only embrace Hanuman now as a befitting act of gratitude (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 1)

43. Sri Rama pondering over his next step: Sri Rama then pondered in despair as to how to cross the mighty ocean with all the vanaras. Sugreeva encouraged Sri Rama telling him to abandon grief and think of ways to build a bridge across the ocean. Once a bridge is built and the army of vanaras are able to cross the ocean to Lanka, victory is certain. Sri Rama then exuded confidence that by his austerities, building a bridge or drying up the ocean he will be able to cross the ocean. He then asked Hanuman to describe the defences of Lanka. Hanuman described Lanka with its four gates, surrounded by moats and guarded by demon armies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 1 to 3)


14. March of vanara troops towards the ocean (Kishkindha, Sahya mountain, Mahendra mountain):

Sri Rama 1. Sri Rama starting with vanara armies: Sri Rama asked Sugreeva to order the vanara troops to march towards Lanka on that day itself when Uttara Phalguni was in conjunction with Hasta nakshatra. Sri Rama saw many good omens and deduced that he will win the battle. He asked Nila to go ahead and explore the way for the vanaras to go through the forest route where fruits abound. He asked Gaja, Gavaya and Gajaksha to lead the way in front. He asked Rishabha to guard the right side of the army .He asked Gandhamadana to guard the left side of the army. Sri Rama decided to march on the shoulders of Hanuman and Lakshmana on the shoulders of Angada in the middle. He asked Jambavan, Sushena and Vegadarshi to guard the middle of the army. Sugreeva ordered the vanaras to march accordingly (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 4)

2. Sri Rama reaching Sahya mountain: Sri Rama reached the Sahya mountain with the vanara troops. That mountain was rich in lakes and flower ponds. Lakshmana mentioned many good omens which he had seen from stars and Nature in general. The Sahya and Malaya mountains abounded in forest with various trees (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 4)

3. Sri Rama reaching Mahendra mountain: Sri Rama reached the Mahendra mountain with the vanara troops (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 4)



15. Southern Sea (Indian side):

Sri Rama making the Ocean-god appear and subsequently building bridge to Lanka Sri Rama building bridge to Lanka 1. Sri Rama reaching the southern sea shore: Sri Rama reached the southern sea shore and asked Sugreeva to order the vanaras to camp there and think of ways to cross the ocean. Sri Rama also cautioned the army to be on guard. There was an incessant dance of waves and the ocean and sky blended with each other. (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 4)

2. Sri Rama lamenting for Devi Sita: Sri Rama lamented for Devi Sita. Lakshmana consoled him (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 5)

3. Ravana consulting the ministers: Ravana consulted the council of ministers about their suggestions. He said that Sri Rama is coming with the vanara armies and he will cross the ocean by any means. The ministers eulogized Ravana mentioning many of his battle exploits and said that Indrajit alone is sufficient to defeat Rama. Many demons like Prahasta, Durmukha, Vajradamstra, Nikumbha, Vajrahanu, Suryaketu, Agniketu, Indrajit etc. displayed their anger and said that they alone with kill Rama, Lakshmana and Sugreeva along with their armies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 6 to 9)

4. Vibhisana proposing Devi Sita to be given away: Vibhisana proposed not to take up enmity with Sri Rama who is on the righteous path and exceedingly strong, and instead give away Devi Sita. Vibhisana warned that the lives of the demons will otherwise be in danger. Ravana left the hall and entered his palace. In the dawn Vibhisana entered the palace of Ravana and again spoke words of counsel. He said that bad omens are being seen. The sacrificial fire was not burning well inspite of mantras. Serpents are seen near sacrificial posts. Ants are seen in the oblations to be offered. The milk of cows are getting curdled. Horses, elephants, donkeys, camels and mules are feeling misery. Cocks are making cruel sounds. Vultures are flying in the sky. Jackals are crying inauspiciously. Hence Devi Sita is to be restored. Ravana became enraged and sent away Vibhisana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 9 to 10)

5. Ravana summoning an assembly: Ravana went to the assembly hall and summoned the demons. Ravana asked Prahasta to guard Lanka well. Then he said that he is infatuated with Devi Sita. Ravana asked for suggestions so that Devi Sita need not be handed back and Rama and Lakshmana can be killed. Kumbhakarna said that Ravana should have consulted them before abducting Devi Sita. However, he will neutralize the dishonourable act of Ravana by killing the enemies. Mahaparshva suggested that Ravana enjoy Devi Sita forcibly and that they will defend Lanka from enemies. Ravana told of a curse on him by Lord Brahma due to his enjoying a celestial nymph called Punjikasthala. Lord Brahma cursed him that his head will break into hundred pieces if he enjoyed any woman forcibly. Ravana then boasted of his own strength saying that Rama did not know about his prowess. Vibhisana compared Devi Sita with a serpent who is engulfing Ravana and said that there is no one who can withstand the arrows of Sri Rama. Therefore he asked the ministers to free the king from the serpent (in the form of Devi Sita) for the good of the demons. Indrajit called Vibhisana a coward and said that he who has earlier conquered Indra in battle; how can he not face two men in battle? Vibhisana called Indrajit as one with immature mind and reinforced that no one can withstand the arrows of Sri Rama. Ravana abused Vibhisana saying that he is more afraid of a kinsman like Vibhisana who speaks for the enemy than the enemy itself. If anyone else had said so, his life would have ended there itself. Vibhisana became angry and departed Lanka with four demons (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 11 to 16)

6. Vibhisana leaving Ravana and coming to Rama: Hearing the words of Ravana, Vibhisana became angry and departed Lanka with four demons as companions. He came to the place where Sri Rama was camping and halted in the sky itself. Sugreeva saw him with suspicion. He told Sugreeva about the evil intentions of Ravana and asked him to inform Sri Rama that he has come to take refuge of him. Sugreeva informed Sri Rama about Vibhisana and also expressed his apprehension that he has come for spying. Sri Rama asked other vanaras about their opinions. The other vanaras also expressed their apprehensions and said that Vibhisana should be allowed only after due investigation. Only Hanuman suggested that there is no ill-intention of Vibhisana because he is fearless and his face is expressing his honesty. Hanuman said that Vibhisana has come seeing the demerits of Ravana and merits of Sri Rama. He also wanted to be the king hearing how Sri Rama made Sugreeva the king by killing Vali (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 17)

7. Sri Rama giving refuge to Vibhisana: Sri Rama finally said that he must give protection to the one who comes to him. Also, there is no fear from him from demons since he can destroy them at will. Sugreeva finally accepted the view of Sri Rama. Obtaining refuge of Sri Rama, Vibhisana descended from the sky and came to Sri Rama. Vibhisana along with his companion demons prostrated before Sri Rama and said that they have left their friends and families and have come to seek protection of Sri Rama. Sri Rama welcomed them and asked about the strengths and weaknesses of the enemies. Vibhisana told about the strengths of Ravana, Kumbhakarna, Prahasta, Indrajit, Mahodara, Mahaparsva and Akampana. Hearing the words of Vibhisana, Sri Rama said that he has heard of those, and they are all true (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 18 to 19)

8. Sri Rama consecrating Vibhishana as king: Sri Rama took the oath that only after killing Ravana along with his sons will he enter Ayodhya, and that thereafter he will make Vibhishana the king. Vibhishana on his part said that he will extend all possible help. Sri Rama asked Lakshmana to consecrate Vibhishana as the king with the water of the ocean (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 19)

9. Sri Rama seeking refuge of the ocean: Sugreeva and Hanuman asked Vibhishana the way to cross the mighty ocean. Vibhishana suggested that Sri Rama seek the refuge of the ocean. The ocean which was excavated by Sagara (a king of the dynasty of Sri Rama) will be inclined to extend help to Sri Rama. Sri Rama found the words of Vibhishana agreeable and sat down on the shore of the ocean on a seat of Kusa grass (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 19)

10. Sri Rama protecting Shuka: Shardula, a demon of Ravana came to the battle camp of Sri Rama and inspected the army of vanaras. He informed Ravana about the enemy. Ravana sent Shuka to sow the seeds of dissension by telling Sugreeva in a sweet manner to return since there will be no gain for him in this battle. It does not matter to him whether Ravana had abducted the wife of another prince. Also, Lanka is impenetrable and the vanaras will not be able to cross the ocean. Shuka took the form of a bird and flew over the ocean. Shuka conveyed the message of Ravana to Sugreeva from the sky. The other vanaras in anger captureed Shuka and tormented him. Sri Rama protected Shuka. Sugreeva gave a stern reply to Shuka. Angada said that Shuka is not an envoy but a spy who had seen the battle arrangements of Sri Rama. The vanaras again captured Shuka and tormented him. Shuka lamented and took refuge of Sri Rama. Sri Rama protected Shuka (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 20)

11. Sri Rama encountering the Ocean-god: Sri Rama lied down on a bed of Kusha grass on the shore of the ocean seeking his refuge and a passage through the ocean for the vanara armies to cross. Sri Rama spent three nights in that manner. However, the Ocean-god did not appear before Sri Rama. Sri Rama became angry and took up his bow to agitate and dry up the ocean. Sri Rama released terrible arrows penetrating the ocean. The ocean became greatly agitated and smoke started coming out of it. The beings of the subterranean region became shaken. Lakshmana then restrained Sri Rama from releasing further arrows and suggested him to find alternative solutions. Sri Rama then took up the Brahma Astra and proceeded to dry up the ocean for making a passage for the vanaras. When Sri Rama stretched his bow, it greatly agitated the world and its creatures. The Ocean-god then appeared before Sri Rama and said that the nature of the elements are fixed by God. So the ocean is fathomless by its own nature. Its water cannot be solidified due to fear and favour. The Ocean-god agreed to suggest a way and bear a passage over him for the vanaras to cross. Sri Rama said that the Brahma Astra cannot be taken back and asked the Ocean-god a place to discharge it. The Ocean-god suggested a holy place called Drumatulya on its northern part which is infested by robbers. The place where Sri Rama released the arrow came to be known as the desert of Maru. The Ocean-god then suggested Sri Rama to build a bridge through Nala, the son of Vishwakarma and that he will bear that bridge (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 21 to 22)

12. Sri Rama building a bridge across the ocean: According to the wish of Sri Rama the vanaras started building a bridge joyfully, and were presided over by Nala. The vanaras brought huge rocks and trees and threw them over the ocean. Making large ropes out of reeds they tied over the rocks to hold them. On the first day fourteen yojanas of bridge was constructed. On the second day twenty yojanas of bridge was constructed. On the third day twenty one yojanas of bridge was constructed. On the fourth day twenty-two yojanas of bridge was constructed. On the fifth day twenty-three yojanas of bridge was constructed up to the sea shore. The celestials saw that wonder bridge from the firmament constructed by Nala and praised Sri Rama. Sri Rama and Lakshmana ascended over the shoulders of Hanuman and Angada respectively and crossed over the ocean with the vanara armies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 22)



16. Lanka (Suvela mountain):

Sri Rama killing Kumbhakarna Sri Rama killing Ravana at Lanka 1. Sri Rama seeing portents of destruction: Sri Rama described to Lakshmana various portents of great destruction and asked the army to be divided into battalions. Winds were blowing with dust. Earth was trembling. Mountain peaks were shaking. Trees were falling down. Clouds of dirty color were showering drops of blood. Evening twilight was red like red sandalwood. Wild animals were roaring with great fear. Moon was having a black and red halo. The solar disc was having a dark stain. Stars were enveloped with dust. Crows, eagles and vultures were flying at a low height. The jackals were howling. Sri Rama decided to attack Lanka that moment itself (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 23)

2. Sri Rama dividing the army into battalions: Sri Rama entered Lanka and heard the battle sound of kettledrums. The vanaras drowned that sound with the sound of their own roar. Sri Rama described the beauty of Lanka to Lakshmana and then divided the army of vanaras into battalions. He positioned Angada and Nila at the center. He positioned Rishabha at the right. He positioned Gandhamadana at the left. He positioned himself and Lakshmana at the front. He positioned Jambavan, Sushena and Vegadarshi in the belly-position. He positioned Sugreeva at the rear side (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 24)

3. Sri Rama releasing Shuka as the messenger of Ravana: Sri Rama then released Shuka as the messenger of Ravana. Shuka trembling with fear reached Ravana. He reported that Rama has come to Lanka with a huge army of vanaras by building a bridge. He told Ravana that the only options now were either to restore Sita or be ready for a combat. Ravana in anger said that he will not restore Sita and teach a lesson to Rama with his arrows (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 24)

4. Ravana sending Shuka and Sarana to gauge the strength of the enemy: Ravana then sent Shuka and Sarana to gauge the strength of the enemies. He told them to report the key ministers and generals in the army and their striking power. Shuka and Sarana entered the army of Rama in the guise of vanaras. Vibhisana recognised and captured them, and produced them before Sri Rama. They trembled with fear and confessed that they were sent by Ravana to know about the army of Rama. Sri Rama smiled and said whether they have properly executed their task; and if so they may go. Else Vibhisana can show them what is remaining. Sri Rama gave the message to Ravana to display that force of him by which he had abducted Devi Sita. Sri Rama said that tomorrow at day break he will attack Lanka. Shuka and Shardula returned to Ravana and said that the army of Rama is unconquerable and suggested Ravana to return Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 25)

5. Ravana seeing the huge army of vanaras: Ravana said that he will not give back Sita even if attacked by celestials and demons. He then ascended to the roof of the palace along with his spies and saw that Lanka was completely filled with the army of vanaras. Ravana then asked the spies about the key army generals. Sarana pointed to valiant Angada the crown prince and son of Vali, Nala the builder of the bridge, Sweta the clever and powerful, Kumuda the ruler of the mountain region Ramya, Rambha who dwells in the Krishna and Sahya mountains of the Vindhya region, Sarabha who dwells in the Salveya mountain, Panasa who dwells in the Pariyatra mountain, and also Vinata, Krathana and many others, each of whom wields a huge army. Sarana pointed out Dhumra (bear) who dwell in the Rikshavanta mountain, Jambavan, Dambha who dwell in the Sahasraksha mountain, Samnada who fought even with Indra, Krathana, Pramathi who dwells in the Mandara and Ushirabija mountain and is a terror to wild elephants, Gavaksha, Kesari who dwells in the Kanchana mountain, Shatabali, Gaja, Gavaya, Nala, Nila and many others who are devoted to Sri Rama and do not have fear of death. Shuka then pointed out Mainda, Dwivida, and exceedingly powerful Hanuman who can change his form at will. Shuka then pointed out Sri Rama and Lakshmana, and Vibhisana, and Sugreeva, and their army consisting of crores of vanaras. Ravana became angry with Shuka and Sarana who praised the strength of enemies and told them to stay out of his neighbourhood (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 26 to 29)

6. Sri Rama releasing spy Shardula: Ravana then sent more spies under the leadership of Shardula to know more about the enemies. Those spies saw Rama and Lakshmana on the neighbourhood of Suvela mountain. They became afraid seeing the huge army of vanaras. Vibhisana recognised the spies and captured them. The vanaras tortured the spies but Sri Rama released them out of kindness. Shardula went back to Ravana and reported that Rama and Lakshmana are camping on the vicinity of the Suvela mountain. Shardula informed that nothing can be found by interrogating the vanaras. Ravana asked about the key vanaras who are powerful. Shardula points out Sugreeva, Hanuman, Sushena, Dadhimukha, Sumukha, Durmukha, Vegadarshi, Nila, Angada, Mainda, Dwividha, Gaja, Gavaksha, Gavaya, Sharabha and Gandhamadana. Shardula then pointed out Rama and Lakshmana and Vibhisana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 29 to 30)

7. Ravana conjuring up trick to make Devi Sita submit: After hearing about Sri Rama camping at the Suvela mountain, Ravana urgently called a meeting and consulted with his ministers. He then called Vidyujjihva, a demon expert in sorcery and created an artificial head and bow of Sri Rama. Ravana then went to the Ashoka garden and told Devi Sita that Rama has been killed with his army by the demons at night (who attacked them when they were asleep). Lakshmana had somehow escaped. Therefore she should forget about her previous husband and accept him as her husband. Devi Sita lamented and told Ravana to also kill her so that she can join her great husband. In the meantime a demon came and informed Ravana that Prahasta wanted to meet him urgently. Ravana departed and the head also vanished. Ravana ordered to assemble his forces immediately (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 31 to 32)

8. Sarama informing the truth to Devi Sita: Sarama, a kind-hearted demoness seeing the condition of Devi Sita told the truth to her that it is a trick of Ravana and Sri Rama is alive and stationed with his huge army in Lanka. He will soon kill Ravana and take her back. Soon kettledrums of demons were heard and Sarama informed that preparation for war was going on. Devi Sita told her to invisibly go to Ravana and hear about his decision to release her. Sarama went to Ravana secretly and heard about his conversation with the ministers. She came back and told Devi Sita that Ravana has decided not to release her (in spite of persuasion by his aged mother and ministers) and is making preparation to wage a war against Sri Rama. They heard the war-sound of the vanara armies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 33 to 34)

9. Malyavan advising Ravana: Malyavan, the maternal grandfather of Ravana advised him to make peace with Rama and restore Sita. He said that the celestials and sages are with Rama. Due to unrighteousness of Ravana, the evil fruits are now befalling on the demons. The insurmountable power of the sages whose minds are purified by penance are intent on establishing righteousness (by destroying the unrighteousness of the demons). The boon of invincibility of Ravana is only from celestials, demons and yakshas. They are not applicable for bears or vanaras (or human beings). Malyavan said that he is seeing many evil portents. Rains are showering blood. Elephants and horses have become pale and are weeping. Jackals and eagles are making horrible sounds. Dogs are eating the sacred offerings. Donkeys are born of cows etc. Malyavan finally said that he deems Sri Rama as an incarnation of Vishnu and not a mere human being (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 35)

10. Ravana abusing Malyavan and preparing for war: Ravana said that Malyavan is exaggerating the strength of Rama who is a mere human being taking help from vanaras, and undermining his strength who possess all power and terrifies the celestials. He said that he will not restore Sita, but make sure that the enemies do not go back alive, now that they have crossed the ocean. Ravana then entrusted the protection of the eastern gate of Lanka to Prahasta, southern gate to Maha Parshva and Mahodara, western gate to Indrajit and northern gate to Shuka and Sarana. He placed Virupaksha at the center of the fort (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 36)

11. Vibhisana sending spies: Sri Rama, Lakshmana, Sugreeva, Hanuman and others discuss about ways to attack Lanka. Vibhisana informed that he has sent spies Anala, Panasa, Sampati and Pramati (in the form of birds), who has returned with the news of Lanka. Vibhisana said that Prahasta is guarding the eastern gate, Mahaparshva and Mahodara are guarding the southern gate, Indrajit is guarding the western gate and Ravana himself is guarding the northern gate. Virupaksha is guarding the center of the fort (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 37)

12. Sri Rama giving orders of attack: Hearing the report of Vibhisana, Sri Rama ordered Nila to attack the eastern gate guarded by Prahasta. Sri Rama ordered Angada to attack the southern gate guarded by Mahaparshva and Mahodara. Sri Rama ordered Hanuman to attack the western gate guarded by Indrajit. Sri Rama himself along with Lakshmana decided to attack the northern gate guarded by Ravana. Sri Rama ordered Sugreeva, Jambavan and Vibhisana to occupy the central part of the army. Sri Rama instructed the vanaras not to assume human form for they need to be recognized. Only he, Lakshmana, Vibhisana and his four companions will assume human form. After giving the instructions, Sri Rama decided to camp on the charming mount Suvela during that night (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 37)

13. Sri Rama observing Lanka from mount Suvela: Sri Rama then ascended mount Suvela along with Lakshmana, Sugreeva and Vibhisana to observe the beauty of Lanka. Hanuman, Angada and other vanaras also ascended the mountain. After observing Lanka they camped on the mountain to spend the night. They also observed the beautiful gardens of Lanka filled with various trees. Some of the vanaras entered those groves. The city of Lanka was located on the top of the Trikuta mountain which was twenty yojanas in length and ten yojanas in breath. Seeing the splendour of Lanka, Sri Rama and Lakshmana was astonished (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 38 to 39)

14. Sugreeva springs on Ravana: Seeing Ravana inside Lanka, Sugreeva in anger went there, announced his identity and sprang on him. Sugreeva threw the crown of Ravana on the ground. The two wrestled with each other for a long time. Then Ravana decided to use his magical powers. Understanding this, Sugreeva flew off in the sky and reached on the side of Sri Rama, leaving Ravana in a state of bewilderment. Sri Rama told Sugreeva not to repeat such reckless act which does not befit a king (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 40 to 41)

15. Sri Rama besieging Lanka: Sri Rama saw many omens of destruction (of both demons and vanaras). The winds were blowing harsh. The earth and the mountains were shaking. Clouds were appearing cruel and shedding rains mixed with blood. The sun at dusk was appearing like fireball. The animals and birds were crying. The moon was appearing reddish. The orb of the Sun was having black marks. Crows, eagles and vultures were flying low and the jackals were howling. Sri Rama climbed down the Suvela mountain and marched forward with the armies of vanaras. Reaching the city of Lanka the huge army of vanaras besiege it from all sides (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 41)

16. Sri Rama sending Angada as messenger: Sri Rama then sent Angada to Ravana with a stern message. He gave the message that the arrogance of Ravana by which he tormented the sages and celestials will now be subdued. Due to abduction of Devi Sita he will now be slain, and then slain by him he will attain the region of gods. He asked Ravana to demonstrate the same power and courage by which he abducted Devi Sita. If he does not return Sita, he will make the world free of demons. Vibhisana who has come to him will now become the king. Angada reached the palace of Ravana and delivered the message. Ravana became enraged and ordered the killing of Angada. When four demons tried to seize Angada, he caught hold of them and flung them on the ground. Then Angada ascended the roof of the palace and shattered it with his feet. Then creating agitation among the demons he returned to Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 41)

17. The battle begins between vanaras and demons: The demons inform Ravana that the city of Lanka has been besieged by the vanaras. Ravana ascended his mansion and saw that the entire Lanka has been surrounded by the vanaras. Sri Rama remembering the afflictions of Devi Sita ordered to destroy the enemies. The vanaras took up huge boulders and uprooting trees started destroying the defensive structures of Lanka. They filled up the moats with sand and other materials. Ravana ordered the demons to start the combat. The demons blared kettle-drums and conches and rushed forward. A terrible battle ensued between the demons and the vanaras. The demons attacked the vanaras with their weapons consisting of maces, spears, axes etc. The vanaras attacked the demons with trees, rocks and with their nails and teeth (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 42)

18. Duels arising between the key generals: Then fierce duels arose between the key generals of either side. Indrajit fought with Angada. Sampati fought with Prajangha. Hanuman fought with Jambumali. Vibhisana fought with Shatrughna. Gaja fought with Tapana. Nila fought with Nikumbha. Sugreeva fought with Praghasa. Lakshmana fought with Virupaksha. Sri Rama fought with Agniketu, Rashmiketu etc. Mainda fought with Vajramushti. Dwividha fought with Ashaniprabha. Nala fought with Pratapana. Sushena fought with Vidyunmali. Sampati killed Prajangha with an Ashvakarna tree. Hanuman ascending the chariot of Jambumali overthrew the demon. Nala subdued Pratapana. Sugreeva killed Praghasa with a Saptaparna tree. Lakshmana killed Virupaksha with his arrows. Rama chopped the hands of Agniketu, Rashmiketu and his other opponents. Mainda subdued Vajramushti. Nila chopped the head of Nikumbha with the wheel of his chariot. Dwivida hit Ashaniprabha with a Sala tree. Sushena crushed Vidyunmali with a huge rock. The terrific battle continued till sunset (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 43)

19. A nocturnal war starting after sunset: After sunset a nocturnal war started between the vanaras and the demons. Sri Rama and Lakshmana killed some key demons, some of whom were invisible. Sri Rama injured demons Yagnasharu, Mahaparshva, Mahodara, Vajradamstra, Shuka and Sarana with his arrows who somehow escaped alive. Sri Rama killed many other demons who came to fight with him. Angada hit Indrajit along with his chariot and horses. Indrajit vanished from the spot by his trick. The celestials, Sri Rama, Lakshmana, Vibhisana and others praised Angada (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 44)

20. Indrajit binding Sri Rama and Lakshmana with Nagastra: Indrajit became invisible and bound Sri Rama and Lakshmana by hurling Nagastras on them with his spell. Sri Rama ordered the vanara generals to search for Indrajit. The vanaras explore the ten directions. Indrajit however checked their advances by his magical weapons. The vanaras could not find Indrajit at night. Indrajit wounded and transfixed Rama and Lakshmana with a network of arrows. Indrajit declared that he cannot be located even by celestials when he is invisible. He discharged more arrows and wounded Rama and Lakshmana. Rama and Lakshmana injured by the arrows of Indrajit all over fell on the ground. Indrajit had hurled fatal weapons like Narchas, Ardha Narchas, Bhallas, Anjalis, Vatsa Dantas, Simha Dantas etc. The vanaras became plunged in despair. Nila, Dwividha, Mainda, Sushena, Kumuda, Angada and Hanuman began to grieve. Vibhisana through his powers detected Indrajit hidden in the sky. Indrajit declared to the demons that he has killed Rama and Lakshmana. Indrajit then hit the chiefs of vanaras with his arrows. He hit Nila, Mainda, Dwividha, Jambavan, Hanuman, Gavaksha, Sharabha and Angada. The demons roared with joy. Indrajit then returned to Lanka (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 44 to 46)

21. Vibhisana consoling Sugreeva: When Sugreeva was plunged in grief, Vibhisana consoled him saying that wars are like that, and with luck Sri Rama and Lakshmana will regain consciousness. Vibhisana said that for those devoted to truth, there is no fear of death. Vibhisana then wiped the eyes of Sugreeva with his hands and told him to give up despondency and protect the vanara troops, as well as Sri Rama and Lakshmana till they regain consciousness. Vibhisana said that Sri Rama is not going to die. He asked Sugreeva to restore confidence in the vanara troops and himself reassured the vanaras and instilled courage in them (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 46)

22. Ravana praising Indrajit: Indrajit entered Lanka and saluting his father informed him that Rama and Lakshmana has been slain. Ravana sprung up with joy and embraced Indrajit. Hearing the details of the war, Ravana praised Indrajit for his prowess (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 46)

23. Ravana taking Sita to battle-field: Ravana ordered the demoness headed by Trijata to take Sita to the battlefield in the Pushpaka Vimana and see the conditions of Rama and Lakshmana with her own eyes. Let her see herself that the husband on whom she depended upon lies slain. Therefore she can submit to him. Ravana proclaimed in Lanka that Rama and Lakshmana have been killed by Indrajit. Seeing Rama and Lakshmana lying motionless transfixed with arrows, and thinking them as dead, Devi Sita wailed piteously. Devi Sita said that the astrologers predicted that she will not become widow and bear sons. They mentioned the auspicious marks on her body and predicted that she will be consecrated as a queen. Now all those predictions are rendered false. Trijata however consoled Devi Sita saying that Rama and Lakshmana are still alive. The army of vanaras are protecting them. Even celestials and demons cannot vanquish Rama and Lakshmana. Trijata pointed out that even lying on the bed of arrows, their splendour is intact which is a marvel in itself. Then Trijata took her back to the Ashoka garden (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 47 to 48)

24. Sri Rama regaining consciousness: Sri Rama regained consciousness and seeing the plight of Lakshmana, started lamenting. He said that it is not possible to find another brother like Lakshmana in the world. What will he say to the mothers and brothers if Lakshmana gave up his life? Sri Rama told Sugreeva to cross the ocean and return to his kingdom. He said that he is ever grateful for the services rendered by them. Meanwhile Vibhisana came there with a mace. The vanaras thinking him as Indrajit flew away. Sugreeva calmed the vanaras. Seeing the conditions of Sri Rama and Lakshmana, Vibhisana started lamenting. Sugreeva consoled him and asked Sushena to take these brothers to Kishkindha till they regain consciousness. Sugreeva said that he will fight with Ravana and recover Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 49 to 50)

25. Sushena telling about Sanjeevani herb: Sushena told Sugreeva that he has seen a terrible battle between the celestials and the demons. The demons becoming invisible wounded the celestials with their arrows. Brihaspati treated the celestials with herbs accompanied by mantras. Those herbs are available in the milky ocean within the mountain Drona and Chandra and are known as Sanjeeva Karani and Vishalya Karani. Let Sampati, Panasa and Hanuman quickly go there and fetch the herbs (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 50)

26. Garuda arriving and freeing Rama and Lakshmana: Garuda, the son of Vinata arrived creating a great commotion in the earth and the ocean. Seeing Garuda, the serpents binding Rama and Lakshmana left them and escaped. Garuda healed Rama and Lakshmana with the touch of his wings. Their bodies regained the earlier lustre and strength. Lifting them up, Garuda embraced them. Sri Rama expressed gratefulness and asked Garuda about his identity. Garuda told about himself and said that the serpents were the sons of Kadru converted into arrows by the spell of Indrajit. And he is a well-wisher of them. Garuda then took leave and flew away. The vanara army roared with regained enthusiasm (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 50)

27. Ravana sending Dhumraksha, Hanuman slaying him: Hearing the joyous roars of the vanaras, Ravana sent his men to ascertain the cause. They informed that Rama and Lakshmana had shattered the fetters of arrows of Indrajit. Hearing the ability of his enemies, Ravana became anxious. He sent Dhumraksha to annihilate Rama and Lakshmana. Dhumraksha exited from the western gate where Hanuman was keeping guard. Dhumraksha saw many evil omens like vultures, rains filled with blood, and earth trembling. The demons became perturbed. Then a terrible battle ensues between the demons and the vanaras. When the army of vanaras were gaining an upper-hand, Dhumraksha let loose his weapons, slays a lot of vanaras and created fear in them. Seeing this, Hanuman picked up a huge rock and shattered the chariot of Dhumraksha. Then he killed many demons and finally faced Dhumraksha. Dhumraksha attacked Hanuman on his head with his mace. Remaining unperturbed, Hanuman hit Dhumraksha with a rock on his skull and killed him (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 51 to 52)

28. Ravana sending Vajradamstra, Angada slaying him: Hearing about the death of Dhumraksha in the battle, Ravana sent Vajradamstra. Vajradamstra exited from the southern gate where Angada was standing guard. Evil portents appeared but Vajradamstra remained unperturbed. A terrific battle ensued between the demons and the vanaras. Angada devastated the army of the demons. The vanaras gained an upper-hand in the battle. Seeing this, Vajradamstra attacked the vanaras with his arrows and sowed panic in them. The vanaras sought refuge with Angada. Vajradamstra attacked Angada with his arrows. Angada threw a tree but Vajradamstra cut it to pieces. Angada then threw a large rock at Vajradamstra. Vajradamstra escaped but the rock destroyed his chariot. Angada then threw a piece of mountain filled with trees at Vajradamstra. Vajradamstra vomited blood and fainted for sometime. Then regaining consciousness he attacked Angada with his mace. After an encounter Angada hit the head of Vajradamstra with a sword and broke it to two pieces (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 53 to 54)

29. Ravana sending Akampana, Hanuman slaying him: Hearing about the death of Vajradamstra in the battle, Ravana sent Akampana. While going for the battle Akampana saw many evil potents. His chariot horses were being deprived of energy. His left eye was twitching. His face and voice was becoming pale. Good weather was turning into bad weather and the birds and beasts were crying terribly. Akampana ignored the portents and marched forward. A terrific battle ensued between the vanaras and the demons. Kumuda, Nala and Mainda displayed great prowess and crushed the demons. Seeing the demons getting crushed, Akampana went near the vanaras and started crushing them. Some started fleeing the battle-field. Then Hanuman of mighty prowess came to their rescue. Akampana attacked Hanuman with lot of arrows. Ignoring the arrows, Hanuman laughed and picked up a mighty mountain. Then he swirled the mountain and hurled it on Akampana. Akampana shattered the mountain by means of his arrows. Hanuman in anger uprooted an Ashwakarna tree and swirling it started destroying the demons with their elephants and chariots (assuming a terrible form like Yama). Akampana hit Hanuman with fourteen arrows. Hanuman uprooted another tree and hit the head of Akampana. Akampana fell down dead (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 55 to 56)

30. Ravana sending Prahasta, Nila slaying him: Hearing about the death of Akampana in the battle, Ravana sent Prahasta. Prahasta marched forward with a huge army with powerful demons like Narantaka, Kumbhahanu, Mahanada and Samunnata. He exited from the eastern gate. Evil portents appeared. Flesh-eating birds moved around the chariot. Jackals started howling. A meteor fell from the sky. Wind blew harshly. Clouds shed blood on the chariot of Prahasta. A vulture started croaking. The goad of the charioteer fell from his hand several times. Ignoring the portents, Prahasta marched forward and attacked the army of Sugreeva. A terrible battle ensued between the vanaras and the demons. Narantaka, Kumbhahanu, Mahanada and Samunnata killed many vanaras. Dwivida hit down Narantaka with a mountain peak. Durmukha uprooted a tree and crushed down Samunnata. Jambavan hit the chest of Mahanada with a huge rock. Tara killed Kumbhahanu. Then Prahasta caused havoc among the vanaras with his arrows. Nila, seeing the vanaras getting crushed, rushed towards Prahasta. Prahasta attacked him with arrows. Nila endured them and hit Prahasta with an uprooted tree. Nila killed the horses of Prahasta with a Sala tree. Then Nila broke the bow of Prahasta. Prahasta attacked Nila on his forehead with his mace. Nila hit Prahasta with a tree. Ignoring that, Prahasta rushed towards Nila to hit him again. Nila picked up a huge rock and hurled on the head of Prahasta. That rock broke the head of Prahasta into pieces. Rama and Lakshmana praised Nila (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 57 to 58)

31. Ravana going to battle, Sri Rama defeating him: Hearing about the death of Prahasta in the battle, Ravana himself went to the battle accompanied by powerful demons like Akampana, Indrajit, Atikaya, Mahodara, Pishacha, Trishira, Kumbha, Nikumbha, Narantaka. Rama said to Vibhisana that Ravana was shining like Yama himself and decided to face him. Sugreeva hurled a mountain peak on Ravana. Ravana broke it with his arrows. Ravana then released a powerful arrow on Sugreeva. Sugreeva lost consciousness. The demons raised a shout of triumph. Then Gavaksha, Gavaya, Sushena, Rishabha, Jyotimukha and Nala hit Ravana with rocks. Ravana with his arrows made their attacks fruitless and in turn attacked them with his arrows. Attacked by Ravana, the vanara generals fell on the ground. The vanara generals then fled and took refuge of Sri Rama. When Rama was going towards Ravana, Lakshmana prayed that he be permitted to face Ravana. Sri Rama acceded and sent Lakshmana. In the meantime Hanuman came to Ravana and threatened him to destroy with his right hand. Ravana told Hanuman to hit him first so that he can measure his strength. Hanuman reminded Ravana that he has killed his son Aksha. Ravana in anger hit Hanuman violently on his chest with his hand. Hanuman reeled for some time, but soon regaining balance hit Ravana with his hand. Ravana reeled for some time but regained his balance also. Ravana then hit Hanuman again on his chest. Hanuman reeled again. Ravana turned his chariot towards Nila. Ravana hit Nila with his arrows. Nila hurled a huge rock towards Ravana. Ravana shattered the rock of Nila. Meanwhile Hanuman regained his balance and came there. Nila then hurled various other trees like Ashwakarna, Shala, Cuta etc on Ravana. Ravana shattered those trees and attacked Nila with his arrows. Nila then rapidly changed his size and amazed Ravana with his agility. The vanaras shouted and confused Ravana. Ravana then hurled an Agneya astra (Arrow of Fire god) on Nila. Nila fell on the ground being burnt all over. Ravana then rushes towards Lakshmana. Ravana releases several arrows which Lakshmana destroyed it with his own arrows. Lakshmana then broke the arrows of Ravana with his own arrows (called Khura, Ardhachandra, Karni, Bhalla etc). Ravana became astonished at the skill of Lakshmana. Ravana hit the forehead of Lakshmana with a powerful arrow given to him by Brahma. Lakshmana reeled for some time but regained his balance. Then Lakshmana attacked Ravana with his arrows, broke his bows and made him swoon. Ravana regained his balance and hurled a spear at Lakshmana. The spear made Lakshmana fall on the ground. Ravana rushed and tried to lift Lakshmana but was unable to do so. Struck by the weapon of Ravana, Lakshmana recollected that he is a part of Lord Vishnu. Then Hanuman rushed and hit Ravana with his hand. Ravana reeled and fell down. He sat motionless in the middle of his chariot. Hanuman lifted Lakshmana and brought him near Sri Rama. To Hanuman, Lakshmana became light due to his devotion. The spear left Lakshmana and returned to the chariot of Ravana. Ravana also regained consciousness. Sri Rama now rushed towards Ravana mounting on the shoulders of Hanuman. Ravana in anger first hit Hanuman with his arrows. Seeing Hanuman wounded, Sri Rama shattered the chariot of Ravana with his arrows. He then hit Ravana on his chest with a powerful arrow. Ravana swooned. Sri Rama then shattered the diadem of Ravana. Thereafter he released Ravana telling him to return to Lanka and come back with his strength regained. Ravana returned to Lanka defeated. Sri Rama then arranged for drawing out the arrows from Lakshmana and other injured vanaras. The celestials felt great joy seeing the defeat of Ravana in the hands of Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 59)

32. Ravana feeling humbled: Entering the city of Lanka, Ravana felt humble and was afflicted with the fear of the arrows of Sri Rama. Ravana became overwhelmed by Rama of great soul as an elephant is overwhelmed by a lion or a serpent by Garuda. Ravana said that all his penance has come to a waste since he has been defeated by a man. He recollected the word of Lord Brahma that he is not immune from threat from men. He recollected that he sought immunity from celestials and others but not from men. He recollected that Anaranya from Ikshvaku dynasty has cursed him that a man born in his race will destroy him. He said that Vedavati whom he has formerly humiliated has been born as Sita. He said that the predictions of Parvati, Nandishwara, Rambha and Punjikasthala is coming true (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 60)

33. Ravana arousing Kumbhakarna: Ravana then ordered the demons to arouse Kumbhakarna who has gone for sleep and who sleeps for several months. The demons entered the huge cave of Kumbhakarna. They placed a huge pile of food in front of him and refreshed him with perfumes. Then they made great clamour by blowing conches, beating drums, clapping hands etc. But Kumbhakarna did not wake up. Then the demons started striking him with maces, hammers and fists. But Kumbhakarna was still asleep. Thousands of demons then made a huge sound with kettle-drums, cymbals, trumpets and conches along with beating him. But Kumbhakarna was still asleep. Then they made horses, donkeys, camels etc. trample on him. But Kumbhakarna was still asleep. Then they make thousand elephants run over his body. Then Kumbhakarna became slightly awake. But due to hunger, he suddenly rose up. Kumbhakarna appeared like death itself willing to devour everything. The demons point out animals like boars and buffaloes which Kumbhakarna devoured. Then he ate the mountain of food placed by the demons and felt satiated. Kumbhakarna then asked the reason for waking him, querying whether any peril has fallen over Lanka. A minister named Yupaksha mentioned about the defeat of Ravana in the hands of a man. Kumbhakarna went with the demons to meet Ravana. Seeing his huge and terrible form the vanaras started running helter-skelter (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 60)

34. Sri Rama enquiring about Kumbhakarna: Sri Rama then enquired about Kumbhakarna. Vibhisana started telling him the story of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna is the son of Visravasa and has defeated Indra and an army of celestials in the battle. After taking birth, because of hunger he started devouring thousands of living creatures. The people were frightened and sought refuge of Indra. The mighty Indra struck Kumbhakarna with his thunderbolt. Kumbhakarna became enraged and plucking a tusk of Airavata, struck Indra on his chest. Indra went to Brahma to seek refuge. To save the world from the devouring Kumbhakarna, Brahma gave the curse that he will be sleeping from now onwards. Kumbhakarna became humbled and pleaded with Ravana. Ravana pleaded with Brahma. Lord Brahma then relaxed the curse saying that Kumbhakarna will sleep for six months and wake up only for one day in a year. Vibhisana said that Kumbhakarna has been awakened by Ravana for the battle. Sri Rama asked Nila to prepare the army to stand ready for striking with rocks and trees (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 61)

35. Kumbhakarna meeting Ravana and assuring him: Kumbhakarna then met Ravana who apprised him of the danger from Rama with his army of vanaras. That army is rapidly destroying the demons and some key demons are already dead. Ravana requested Kumbhakarna to show his prowess and save Lanka by destroying Rama and the vanaras. Ravana said that he has never requested anyone like this before. Kumbhakarna scolded Ravana for not heeding the wise counsel before due to his sheer arrogance. Kumbhakarna said that action done without proper deliberation gets spoiled like offering oblations without preparing the fire. Men resort to haughty actions without consulting the scriptures. Kumbhakarna said that the advice of Vibhisana was indeed beneficial to him. Ravana became angry and said that there is no use of giving advice but doing what is to be done now. He is a true friend who rescues a kinsman during the time of trouble. Seeing Ravana getting perturbed, Kumbhakarna assured him that he will destroy his enemies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 62 to 63)

36. Mahodara giving advice, Kumbhakarna rebuking him: Mahodara opposed the view of Kumbhakarna and supported the act of Ravana. He said that only actions lead to results and the king has taken the appropriate course of action as needed for increasing the pleasure of the demons. Mahodara advised Kumbhakarna not to go the battlefield alone but take an army. He also told Ravana about a plan to proclaim after the battle that Rama is dead (irrespective of whether the demons are defeated) and make Sita submit to him. Kumbhakarna rebuked Mahodara and assured Ravana. Ravana decorated Kumbhakarna with various jewellery and told him to take an army with him (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 64 to 65)

37. Kumbhakarna going to the battlefield, Sri Rama slaying him: Kumbhakarna marched to the battlefield with a sharp spike in hand and followed by an army. He assumed a colossal form. However, evil omens appeared in Nature. The earth trembled and lightning appeared over the ashy clouds. Jackals howled. A vulture descended on the spike of Kumbhakarna. His left eye twitched and his left arm throbbed. A meteor fell down. Ignoring the evil omens, Kumbhakarna marched on. The vanaras seeing his terrific form became frightened and started running away. Seeing the vanaras fleeing, Kumbhakarna rejoiced and roared. Angada instilled courage in the vanaras. He said to Nala, Nila, Gavaksha and Kumuda not to abandon their nobilities and run away like common vanaras. Angada said that Kumbhakarna is merely a large appearance of terror but without much ability to combat. The vanaras shore up their courage and hit Kumbhakarna with rocks and trees. Kumbhakarna remained unshaken. He destroyed many powerful vanaras playfully. Angada again tries to assemble the vanaras saying not to behave like cowards, but if required die and reach the abode of Brahma which is difficult to obtain. Angada said that Kumbhakarna will not be able to withstand Sri Rama. However, many vanaras said that their lives are dearer to them and start fleeing. However, Angada made them come back with his arguments. Rishabha, Sharabha, Mainda, Dhumra, Nila, Kumuda, Sushena, Gavaksha, Rambha, Tara, Dwividha, Panasa and Hanuman got ready for the battle. Dwividha hurled a mountain on Kumbhakarna which missed him and fell on the army. Dwividha hurled another mountain and crushed the demons. Hanuman hurled rocks and trees on the head of Kumbhakarna from the sky. Kumbhakarna broke all those with his spike. Hanuman hit again and injured Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna hit Hanuman on his chest with his spike. Hanuman vomited blood and roared. The demons rejoiced and the vanaras started fleeing. Nila hurled a mountain-top on Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna hit it with his fist and broke it to pieces. Rishabha, Sharabha, Nila, Gavaksha and Gandhamadana jointly attacked Kumbhakarna from all sides with rocks, trees, nails and fists. Kumbhakarna remained unperturbed as if simply touched. He squeezed Rishabha and threw him on the ground. Rishabha vomited blood. Then Kumbhakarna hit and injured Sharabha, Nila, Gavaksha and Gandhamadana. Then thousands of vanaras ascended on the body of Kumbhakarna and started biting and hitting him. Kumbhakarna devoured them like an eagle. After getting devoured, the vanaras started exiting from his nostrils and ears. Kumbhakarna then started to split the vanaras before devouring them. The vanaras sought refuge in Sri Rama. Angada in angered hurled a rock on the head of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna attacked Angada with his spike but Angada avoided it. Angada then hit Kumbhakarna on his chest. Kumbhakarna became giddy for some time and threw down Angada violently. Angada became unconscious. Kumbhakarna then ran towards Sugreeva. Sugreeva hurled a mountain on Kumbhakarna. The mountain crushed to pieces after striking his chest. Kumbhakarna then hurled his spike towards Sugreeva. Hanuman jumped rapidly, and getting hold of the spike broke it. The vanaras roared in rejoice and Kumbhakarna became downcast. Kumbhakarna then uprooted a peak of the Malaya mountain and hit Sugreeva. Sugreeva fell down unconscious. Kumbhakarna then seized Sugreeva and started carrying him away. At this critical juncture, Hanuman pondered over his duty. Hanuman thought of assuming a huge form and destroying Kumbhakarna, but later thought that he will only liberate Sugreeva and allow Sugreeva to strike Kumbhakarna when he regained his consciousness. Kumbhakarna entered the city of Lanka with the captured Sugreeva. The residents rejoice and showered flowers. By the sprinkled waters, Sugreeva regained consciousness. Sugreeva then pondered about his course of action which will bring glory to the vanaras. He then tore the ears and nose of Kumbhakarna with his nails and teeth. Kumbhakarna in anger threw down Sugreeva and tried to crush him. Sugreeva escaped and united with Sri Rama. Bereft of ears and nose, Kumbhakarna again marched to the battlefield with a hammer in hand, devouring the vanaras on the way like an inferno. Lakshmana interceded and released his arrows on Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna destroyed the arrows of Lakshmana. Lakshmana released more arrows on the armour of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna praised the heroism of Lakshmana, and as if granting him life, disregarded him and marched towards Sri Rama. Sri Rama pierced the chest of Kumbhakarna with Raudra astra. Kumbhakarna roared terribly and vomited blood. The weapon dropped off from the hand of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna started fighting with his arms and continued to devour the vanaras. Kumbhakarna then hurled a mountain on Sri Rama. Sri Rama split the mountain with his arrows. Lakshmana suggested the monkey troops to mount on Kumbhakarna and bring him down to a crawling position by their weight. Kumbhakarna however, shook off the vanaras. Sri Rama became angry and quickly marched towards Kumbhakarna instilling confidence on the vanaras. Emitting a great sound by the twang of his bow Sri Rama enraged Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna ran towards Sri Rama. Sri Rama challenged him and said that he will now be dead within a moment. Kumbhakarna boasted and said that he is neither Viradha, Kabandha, Khara, Vali or Mareecha. He is Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna challenged Sri Rama to show his prowess before he devours him. Sr Rama released many arrows but Kumbhakarna remain unmoved. The arrows which killed Vali could not afflict Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna brandished his hammer and obstructed the arrows of Sri Rama. He scared away the vanaras. Then Sri Rama took up the Vayavya weapon and chopped off the arms of Kumbhakarna holding the hammer. Kumbhakarna roared terribly. That chopped arm fell down and destroyed a regiment of vanaras. Kumbhakarna then uprooted a tree with another arm and ran towards Sri Rama. Sri Rama chopped off the other arm of Kumbhakarna also with his arrow charged with mantra. Sri Rama then chopped off the feet of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna fell down creating a great sound. Kumbhakarna then tried to crawl towards Rama with mouth wide open and tried to devour him. Sri Rama filled the mouth of Kumbhakarna with his arrows and stopped his roaring. Sri Rama then took up the powerful Indra astra and chopped off the head of Kumbhakarna. The head broke down many buildings on the king's highway. The huge body of Kumbhakarna fell down on the sea. The celestials roared with joy. And the vanaras adored Sri Rama who shone like the Sun amidst the stars (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 65 to 67)

38. Ravana grieving over Kumbhakarna: Hearing about the death of Kumbhakarna, Ravana almost fainted with shock. Other demons like Devantaka, Narantaka, Trishira and Atikaya (whose paternal uncle was Kumbhakarna) and Mahodara and Mahaparshva also plunged in grief. Ravana then lamented saying that Kumbhakarna had gone to the hero's abode leaving him alone, as if severing his right hand. Ravana expressed his wonder how the invincible Kumbhakarna can be made to fall by the arrows of Rama. He said that bereft of Kumbhakarna, he has no wish for his kingdom or Devi Sita. Either he will kill Rama to take revenge or die, but no way continue to live a useless life. Ravana realised that the words of Vibhisana which he did not accept had come true. Ravana especially mentioned about the death of Kumbhakarna and Prahasta, and the banishment of pious Vibhisana as the cause of his great pain (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 68)

39. Ravana sending his sons Trishira, Devantaka, Narantaka and Atikaya: Trishira (the son of Ravana) reminded Ravana of his strength and said that it does not befit him to grieve like an ordinary man. With the various boons and weapons he indeed can conquer Rama. Trishira asked for the permission to go to the battle and destroy Rama. Ravana as if got a new life. Hearing the words of Trishira, the other sons of Ravana, Devantaka, Narantaka and Atikaya came forward. Ravana sent his powerful sons to the battle. To guard his sons, Ravana sent Yuddonmatta and Matta (also known as Mahodara and Mahaparshva) (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 69)

40. Angada slaying Narantaka: A fierce battle ensued between the vanaras and the demons. The demons rained arrows on the vanaras who retaliated with stones and trees. Soon the vanaras were having an upper hand. But Narantaka entered the battle scene and single-handedly destroyed hundreds of vanaras with his javelin. Even before the vanaras lifted their trees and rocks, Narantaka made them fall in a moment. The vanaras then took refuge of Sugreeva. Sugreeva ordered Angada to swiftly kill Narantaka. Angada challenged Narantaka and asked him to throw the javelin towards his chest. In anger Narantaka hurled his javelin towards Angada. That javelin broke down into pieces hitting the chest of Angada. Angada hit the head of Narantaka's horse and made it fall dead. Narantaka in anger hit Angada on his head with his fist. Angada swooned for some time with blood flowing out. Then regaining his balance he gave Narantaka a deadly blow on his chest with his fist. Narantaka fell down dead like a mountain. The celestials rejoiced (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 69)

41. Hanuman slaying Devantaka: Seeing Angada kill Narantaka, Mahodara, Devantaka and Trishira jointly attacked Angada. Angada hurled a large tree at Devantaka. Trishira chopped off that tree with his arrows. Then Angada hurled trees and rocks. Trishira broke them with his arrows and Mahodara with his club. Trishira then attacked Angada with his arrows. At the same time Mahodara hit Angada on his chest with his javelin. Devantaka came and hit Angada with his club. Even though attacked at the same time by the three very powerful demons, Angada the son of Vali remained unperturbed and fought on. With great agility, Angada hit the elephant of Devantaka with his hand and killed it. Then uprooting a tusk of that elephant, Angada hit Devantaka. Devantaka vomited blood but regaining his balance hit Angada with his iron rod. Angada fell down but quickly sprang up. At the same time, Trishira hit Angada with three arrows on his forehead. Seeing Angada surrounded by powerful demons, Hanuman and Nila reached there. Hanuman hurled a mountain peak on Trishira. Trishira broke it down with his arrows. When Devantaka rushed towards Hanuman, Hanuman gave a terrible blow on his head with his fist. The head broke down and Devantaka fell down dead with eyes and teeth protruding out (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 70)

42. Nila slaying Mahodara: Seeing Devantaka die, Trishira showered arrows on the chest of Nila in rage. At the same time Mahodara attacked Nila with arrows. Nila became benumbed for some time. Regaining consciousness Nila lifted a mountain piece with great speed and hit Mahodara on his head. Struck by that huge mountain piece, Mahodara fell down dead (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 70)

43. Hanuman slaying Trishira: Hanuman hurled a mountain piece on Trishira which he broke down with his arrows. Hanuman then hurled many trees towards Trishira. Trishira chopped them all with his arrows. Then Hanuman in anger tore the horse of Trishira with his nails. Trishira hurled a spear towards Hanuman. Hanuman caught that spear and broke it. Trishira then lifted a sword and hit Hanuman on his chest. Hanuman in retaliation hit Trishira on his chest with his hand. Trishira fell down unconscious. Hanuman snatched the sword of Trishira and roared. Trishira got up and hit Hanuman with his fist. Hanuman held the three heads of Trishira and chopped them off with the sword (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 70)

44. Rishabha slaying Mahaparshva: Seeing Trishira die, Mahaparshva went towards the vanaras with his mace. Rishabha obstructed the path of Mahaparshva. Mahaparshva hit Rishabha on his chest with his mace. Rishabha lost consciousness and fell down bleeding. Regaining his consciousness after sometime, he hit Mahaparshva on his chest with his fist. Mahaparshva fell down on the ground bleeding. Then Rishabha took away the mace of Mahaparshva. Regaining consciousness Mahaparshva hit Rishabha. Rishabha fell down unconscious. Then regaining consciousness he hit Mahaparshva with his mace. Mahaparshva fell down bleeding. Rishabha hit Mahaparshva with that mace repeatedly and killed him. The army of demons fled the scene (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 70)

45. Lakshmana slaying Atikaya: Seeing his brothers and uncles slain in the battle, Atikaya became enraged. He roared and announced himself. Seeing his large body, the vanaras became frightened thinking him as another Kumbhakarna rising up. They took refuge of Sri Rama. Sri Rama asked Vibhisana who that formidable looking demon is. Vibhisana introduced him as Atikaya, the son of Ravana who had a boon from Brahma that his death will not occur on the hands of celestials and demons. Vibhisana suggested Rama to quickly destroy him, else he will rapidly destroy the army of vanaras. Kumuda, Dwivida, Mainda, Nila and Sharabha hurled trees and rocks on him, which Atikaya broke with his arrows. Atikaya hit the vanaras with arrows made of iron and made them fall such that they are unable to retaliate again. Atikaya then moved towards Rama and said that he will not fight with common warriors. Whoever has the ability can challenge him. Lakshmana took up the challenge and with the twang of his bow frightened the demons. Atikaya asked Lakshmana why he wanted to lose his life unnecessarily by challenging him when he is still a boy. Lakshmana replied that merely by boasting a person does not become great. Let him show his strength before his head is made to fall by him. Lakshmana reminded him that Vishnu as a boy strode the three worlds, so he need not disregard a boy. Atikaya then hurled a powerful arrow which Lakshmana broke with his own arrow. Atikaya further hurled five arrows together which Lakshmana also broke with his arrows. Lakshmana then hurled a powerful arrow on the forehead of Atikaya and made him tremble. Atikaya in reply released several arrows together which Lakshmana broke with his arrows. Becoming enraged, Atikaya released a powerful arrow on the chest of Lakshmana. Blood flowed out of Lakshmana. However, Lakshmana quickly freed himself from that arrow and released an Agni astra. Atikaya in reply released the Surya astra. The two arrows nullified themselves. Atikaya then released an arrow of Twasta which Laksmana nullified with an arrow of Indra. Atikaya then hurled an arrow of Yama which Lakshmana nullified with an arrow of Vayu. Lakshmana then hurled thousands of arrows on Atikaya which broke down hitting his armour. Atikaya hurled a powerful arrow on Lakshmana and made him unconscious for a moment. Lakshmana then broke the flagstaff and killed the horses and charioteer of Atikaya with his arrows. The Wind-god then appeared and told Lakshmana to release a Brahma astra since Atikaya cannot be killed by any other weapons due to the boon of armour by Lord Brahma. Lakshmana then fixed a Brahma astra on his bow which made the sun, moon and the earth agitate with fear. Lakshmana released that arrow on Atikaya. Atikaya hit that arrow of Brahma with several arrows as also with spike, spear and other weapons. The arrow of Lord Brahma nullified all the weapons of Atikaya and finally severed the head of the demon. The vanaras worshipped Lakshmana. The demons fled in fear (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 71)

46. Ravana grieving in surprise: Hearing about the deaths of his sons, Ravana grieved and at the same time became surprised as to how Rama, Lakshmana and vanaras can destroy his powerful demons whom even celestials cannot defeat. Ravana became surprised as to how Rama and Lakshmana extricated themselves from the Naga astra of Indrajit from whose bind even celestials cannot free themselves. Ravana realised that he has no more generals who can withstand Rama and Lakshmana. Rama is really of mighty strength. Ravana instructed the demons to vigilantly guard the city and the Ashoka garden. He then retired to his chamber and grieved for the loss of his sons (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 72)

47. Indrajit taking revenge with Brahma astra: Hearing about the deaths of his sons, Ravana started grieving with tears in his eyes. Seeing his father lamenting, Indrajit took a firm resolve to destroy Rama and Lakshmana then itself, and went to the battlefield. There, Indrajit performed a fire ritual and offered oblations. Indrajit then invoked the Brahma astra and stretched his bow making the sun, moon and the sky tremble. Indrajit made himself invisible in the sky. By raining arrows and other weapons Indrajit swiftly annihilated the vanaras. Indrajit hit all the principal generals of vanaras like Gandhamadana, Nala, Mainda, Gaja, Jambavan, Nila, Sugreeva, Rishabha, Angada, Dwividha, Hanuman, Sushena, Vegadarshi, Gavaya, Gavaksha, Kesari etc. Then Indrajit rained arrows on Rama and Lakshmana. Sri Rama told Lakshmana to bear the rain of arrows of Indrajit with a calm mind which were presided over by Lord Brahma. Sri Rama decided to desist from fighting for the time being so that Indrajit returned to Lanka with a pride of victory. Making Rama and Lakshmana and the vanaras fall in the battle field, Indrajit returned to Lanka with the joy of victory (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 73)

48. Hanuman bringing the mountain of herbs from the Himalayas: The Brahma astra of Indrajit made Sri Rama and Lakshmana and multitude of other vanaras senseless. Sugreeva, Nila, Angada and Jambavan felt hapless not knowing what to do. Vibhisana then consoled them saying that Sri Rama and Lakshmana had actually honoured the missile of Brahma, so there is no reason to feel sorrow. Hanuman and Vibhisana then started roaming in the battle field with torches in hand and witnessed the devastation caused by Indrajit who had brought down sixty-seven crores of vanaras. They begin to search for Jambavan. Vibhisana located Jambavan who was struck by arrows and could hear but not see. Jambavan enquired whether Hanuman was alive. Vibhisana was surprised and asked why he was showing favour to Hanuman leaving Sri Rama, Lakshmana, Sugreeva or Angada. Jambavan replied that if Hanuman has survived there is a chance of survival of the other vanaras, else they are like dead even if alive. Hanuman then came forward and offered his salutations to Jambavan. Seeing Hanuman alive, Jambavan felt he was born again. Jambavan then told Hanuman to go to the Himalayas, travelling high over the ocean. There he will see the peaks of mount Rishabha and Kailasha. In between the two peaks, there is a mountain containing all the herbs. There will be four herbs which will shine illuminating the four quarters. They are Mrita Sanjeevani (bringing back the life force), Vishalya Karani (removing poison), Suvarnakarani (healing, bringing back the golden complexion) and Sandhani (joining fractures bones). Hanuman then with great vigour ascended mount Trikuta and pressed it with his feet to take off, thereby making Lanka tremble. He then took off and ascended mount Malaya and roared, making the demons tremble. Hanuman took off from mount Malaya towards the Himalayas. Reaching Himalayas, Hanuman saw many waterfalls and the hermitages of the sages. Hanuman saw the abode of Brahma, Shiva, Indra, worshipping place of Hayagriva, abode of Agni, Kubera etc. Hanuman saw mount Kailasha and mount Rishabha illumined by herbs. He started searching for the herbs. The principal herbs disappeared knowing that someone is searching for them. Hanuman in anger uprooted the whole mountain and carried it to Lanka. Keeping the mountain, Hanuman saluted the principal vanaras and embraced Vibhisana. By inhaling the smell of the herbs, Sri Rama, Lakshmana and the vanaras rose up after getting healed. All the vanaras who had died earlier rose up alive. Hanuman then carried the mountain back to the Himalayas and joined Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 74)

49. Sugreeva setting Lanka on fire: Sugreeva ordered the vanaras to set Lanka on fire. In the evening the vanaras attacked Lanka with torches in hand. The guards fled. The vanaras then threw the fire towards the gates, streets and mansions. Mansions containing various gems, clothing, ornaments, cosmetics, weapons etc. was consumed by that fire. Women of Lanka started screaming and began to run to save themselves. The guards let loose the elephants and horses to save them from the fire. It appeared as if the time of dissolution has come upon Lanka. And at the same time the vanaras attacked the demons. Sri Rama stretched his bow and struck fear in the demons with the sound of its twang. Sri Rama tumbled down the main gate of the city with his arrows. Sugreeva ordered the vanaras to wage a war with the demons (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 75)

50. Ravana sending Kumbha, Nikumbha and other generals: Ravana woke up enraged and sent Kumbha and Nikumbha, the sons of Kumbhakarna to fight with the vanaras. He further sent Yupaksha, Shonitaksha, Prajangha and Kampana with the sons of Kumbhakarna. A terrific fight ensued between the demons and the vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 75)

51. Angada slaying Kampana: Angada attacked Kampana. Kampana struck him violently with mace and made him reel. Angada restored his balance and hurled a mountain peak on Kampana and killed him (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 76)

52. Angada slaying Prajangha: Seeing Kampana dead, Shonitaksha attacked Angada with very powerful arrows like Kshura, Kshurapra, Naracha, Vatsanda, Shilimukha, Karni, Shalya and Vipatha. The arrows wounded Angada who in fury crushed the chariot, bows and arrows of Shonitaksha. Shonitaksha took up his sword and shield and attacked Angada. Snatching away his sword, Angada roared and struck Shonitaksha from left to right with the sword. Shonitaksha fell down but after regaining consciousness attacked Angada again with his mace. At the same time Prajangha and Yupaksha attacked Angada with their maces. Mainda and Dwivida now came to protect Angada. A fierce battle ensued between the three demons and the three vanaras. The vanaras hurled trees over the demons. Prajangha cut them with his sword. The vanaras hurled trees and rocks towards the chariots of the demons. Yupaksha broke them with his arrows. Shonitaksha chopped off the trees hurled by Dwividha and Mainda. Prajangha then attacked Angada with his sword. Angada struck him with an Ashvakarna tree. Then striking with fist, Angada made his sword fall. Prajangha struck Angada with his fist and made him shudder for a moment. Regaining his balance, Angada then gave him a mighty blow with his fist making his head fall off from his trunk (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 76)

53. Dwivida slaying Shonitaksha: Seeing Prajangha dead, Yupaksha rushed towards Dwivida with his sword. Dwivida caught hold of Yupaksha and gave him a blow on his chest. Seeing Yupaksha getting caught by Dwivida, Shonitaksha struck him on his chest (with his mace). Dwivida shuddered for some time but then pulled away his mace. Mainda hit Yupaksha on his chest with his hand. A fight ensued between the two vanaras and demons. Finally Dwivida split open the face of Shonitaksha with his claws and crushed him on the ground (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 76)

54. Mainda slaying Yupaksha: At the same time Mainda pressed Yupaksha with his arms and made him fall down dead (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 76)

55. Sugreeva slaying Kumbha: Seeing the key generals fall, Kumbha in rage displayed his great prowess. He discharged very powerful arrows on Dwivida and made him fall down throbbing. Seeing his brother Dwivida fall, Mainda took up a huge rock and hurled it on Kumbha. Kumbha broke the rock with his arrows and then struck Mainda with his powerful arrows. Mainda fell on the ground unconscious. Seeing his maternal uncles fall, Angada then rushed towards Kumbha. Kumbha pierced Angada with powerful arrows. Angada remained unshaken and hurled trees and rocks on Kumbha's head. Kumbha, the son of Kumbhakarna broke those trees and rocks with his arrows. Kumbha now pierced the brows of Angada with his arrows. The blood flowing out covered the eyes of Angada. Covering his eyes with one hand, Angada uprooted a large Shala tree with his other hand and hurled on Kumbha. Kumbha chopped that tree with his arrows. Angada swooned and fell down depressed. The vanara generals informed Rama who sent Jambavan with an army of vanaras. Jambavan, Sushena and Vegadarshi rushed towards Kumbha, the son of Kumbhakarna. Kumbha attacked them with a flood of arrows. Due to the arrows of Kumbha the vanara generals were unable to proceed towards him. Sugreeva, guarding Angada in rear then rushed headlong towards Kumbha. Sugreeva hurled many trees on Kumbha. Kumbha chopped them all with his arrows. Sugreeva remain unperturbed. Then bearing his arrows Sugreeva marched and snatched off the bow of Kumbha and broke it into pieces. Sugreeva then praised Kumbha for his prowess and challenged him for a duel. Sugreeva told Kumbha to take some rest to drive off his fatigue before the duel. Kumbha and Sugreeva then entered into a duel of wrestling. Sugreeva tossed up Kumbha and threw him into the sea. Kumbha jumped up and struck Sugreeva on his chest with his fist, breaking his armour and making blood flow out of his chest. Sugreeva then tightened his fist and made it forcefully descend on the chest of Kumbha. Kumbha became exhausted by that blow and fell down dead. The demons became seized with fear (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 76)

56. Hanuman slaying Nikumbha: Seeing Kumbha dead, Nikumbha became enraged and hurled his club on the chest of Hanuman. Hanuman remained unmoved and the club broke into hundred pieces. Then Hanuman struck the chest of Nikumbha with a powerful blow of his fist. That blow broke the armour of Nikumbha and blood flowed out. Nikumbha regained his balance and catching Hanuman lifted him off the ground. Hanuman struck Nikumbha, freed himself from his clutch and threw him on the ground. Then Hanuman descended on his chest and pounded him. Finally catching his head, he tore it off the body (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 77)

57. Ravana sending Makaraksha, Sri Rama slaying him: Ravana then sent Makaraksha, the son of Khara to destroy Rama and Lakshmana. When Makaraksha was going to the battlefield, evil portents appear. The whip fell from the hand of the charioteer. The flag-staff also fell down. The horses became devoid of strength and tears appeared on their eyes. A dust storm blew. Makaraksha ignored the portents and marches towards Rama and Lakshmana. In the battlefield, Makaraksha instilled fear among the vanaras with the volley of his arrows. Sri Rama came and faced Makaraksha. Makaraksha discharged a volley of arrows on Sri Rama which Sri Rama broke with his own arrows. Makaraksha on the other hand broke the arrows of Sri Rama. Both injured each other. The celestials assembled to see that great battle. Sri Rama broke the bow of Makaraksha. Then killing the charioteer and the horses, he broke his chariot. Makaraksha then took up a spike given to him by Rudra and hurled it on Sri Rama. Sri Rama broke that spike with his arrows. Makaraksha rushed towards Sri Rama raising his fist. Sri Rama released the Agni astra. It pierced the heart of Makaraksha and killed him. The demons fled the battlefield out of fear (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 78 to 79)

58. Ravana sending Indrajit: Ravana then sent Indrajit in the battle. Indrajit performed a sacrifice and propitiating the gods marched towards the battlefield. Then Indrajit became invisible and showered a volley of arrows on Sri Rama and Lakshmana. Sri Rama and Lakshmana also discharged a volley of arrows but they could not touch Indrajit. Indrajit created darkness with his mystic spell and remained invisible such that even his sound cannot be heard. Indrajit discharged steel arrows and wounded Sri Rama and Lakshmana. In retaliation, Sri Rama and Lakshmana discharged arrows (in the direction of the incoming arrows) and wounded the invisible Indrajit. Indrajit killed the vanaras by hundreds. Lakshmana then sought permission of Sri Rama to release the Brahma astra and destroy all the demons. Sri Rama said that Lakshmana should not kill all demons but only Indrajit. He should not kill those who are not fighting and are taking refuge. Sri Rama said that the petty Indrajit cannot escape from him for long even if he hides in patala or other lokas. Then Sri Rama started thinking of ways to eliminate Indrajit (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 80)

59. Indrajit killing illusory Sita: Indrajit then entered Lanka and returned to the battlefield creating an illusory image of Sita in his chariot. Hanuman and other vanaras became confounded. Indrajit caught the illusory Sita by her hair and drew out his sword. Sita was crying "Rama Rama" all along. Hanuman rebuked Indrajit telling that by killing Devi Sita, he will meet with death in his hands and go to the terrible hell. Indrajit replied that women belonging to the enemies can be killed. Saying thus, Indrajit killed the illusory Sita with his sword. Then Indrajit laughed loudly and declared that all the effort of the vanaras have gone to vain. The vanaras became dejected and ran away. Hanuman instilled courage in them and again made them fight. Hanuman hurled a large rock towards the chariot of Indrajit. The horses carried the chariot far away and avoided the rock. The vanaras started destroying the army of demons with rocks and trees. Indrajit in anger released his arrows and killed a large number of vanaras. Hanuman asked the vanaras to retreat since Devi Sita for whom they were fighting has been killed. Hanuman said that they will inform the matter to Sri Rama and Sugreeva and consult them about future actions (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 81 to 82)

60. Indrajit going to Nikumbhila and performing sacrifice: Seeing Hanuman and his army of vanaras retreating, Indrajit went to Nikumbhila to performed a sacrifice. The sacrificial fire blazed up consuming the oblations of flesh and blood (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 82)

61. Hanuman informing Rama about the death of (illusory) Sita: Hanuman then came to the presence of Sri Rama and informed him that Indrajit has killed Devi Sita before them in the battle ground. Hearing that news, Sri Rama fainted. The vanaras sprinkled water on Sri Rama. Lakshmana lamented, embraced Sri Rama and comforted him. Lakshmana expressed his opinion that virtue does not exist; else a noble person like Rama cannot face such misfortune. Lakshmana said that prosperity enhances even in those rooted in unrighteousness and declines even in those rooted in righteousness. Hence the concepts of virtue and vice are useless. Lakshmana told Sri Rama to show his might over virtue, since virtue operates only when powered by strength. Lakshmana further said that wealth is all-important, since friends gather around the wealthy and relatives stand by him, and he is (even) considered a learned. Everything is obtained from wealth (whether it is religious or worldly). Lakshmana said that now he will completely destroy Lanka (displaying his might) (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 83)

62. Vibhisana revealing the plans of Indrajit: Vibhisana came there and heard about the killing of the (illusory) Sita by Indrajit. Vibhisana said that this cannot be true. Ravana cannot kill Sita. He did not give up Sita even when begged by well-wishers for the sake of the demon community. Vibhisana said that the Sita who was killed by Indrajit was an illusory Sita. Indrajit wanted to get an intermission in the battle to go to Nikumbhila and perform a sacrifice. After performing that sacrifice he will become difficult to conquer even by celestials. Vibhisana told Sri Rama to send Lakshmana with him to Nikumbhila and destroy the sacrifice of Indrajit before it ends. Then Indrajit will become susceptible to getting killing. Sri Rama could not first understand the full import of Vibhisana's words (due to his grief over Devi Sita) and told him to repeat it again. Vibhisana said that Indrajit performed penance and obtained Brahmashira weapon from Lord Brahma. However Lord Brahma also said that if Indrajit fought without offering oblations at Nikumbhila, he will be killed by the enemy. Sri Rama sent Lakshmana with Vibhisana, Hanuman, Jambavan, Angada and accompanied by a large army. Lakshmana went to the sanctuary of Nikumbhila with the army of vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 84 to 85)

63. Lakshmana slaying Indrajit: Reaching the sanctuary of Nikumbhila, Vibhisana asked Lakshmana to destroy the army of Indrajit through arrows and with the help of the vanaras; thereby destroying the sacrifice of Indrajit. A battle ensued between the demons and the vanaras. Lakshmana showered arrows in the direction of Indrajit. Hearing his army getting destroyed by the vanaras, Indrajit left his sacrifice, came out and ascended his chariot. At that time Hanuman showing his mighty prowess uprooted huge trees and hurled them on the demons making them unconscious. Indrajit took his chariot towards Hanuman and hurled swords, spears and axes on the head of Hanuman. Vibhisana warned Lakshmana that Indrajit is trying to kill Hanuman and told Lakshmana to release his terrible arrows on Indrajit. Vibhisana showed the place near a banyan tree where Indrajit performed oblations and then becomes invincible. Lakshmana reached near Indrajit and challenged him. Indrajit rebuked Vibhisana and said that by betraying his own relations he has stooped low. Finally the enemy side will kill him after getting their work done. Vibhisana said that by nature he is virtuous and on the side of righteousness. By renouncing an unrighteous man, one does not incur sins, but on the other hand gain happiness. By his unrighteous acts Ravana will not exist longer. Vibisana told Indrajit to show his prowess on Lakshmana. Indrajit reminded Lakshmana about his earlier fatal blow on him and making him unconscious. Lakshmana replied that during that time Indrajit adopted the path of thieves by making himself invisible. Indrajit in fury released many arrows on Lakshmana. In retaliation, Lakshmana released his arrows on Indrajit. A terrific duel ensued between Lakshmana and Indrajit. Lakshmana made Indrajit swoon for a moment. Regaining his consciousness, Indrajit struck Lakshmana, Hanuman and Vibhisana with his arrows and wounded them. Lakshmana made light of Indrajit's attack and releasing his powerful arrows broke the armour of Indrajit. Indrajit in retaliation broke the armour of Lakshmana. Indrajit and Lakshmana continued their terrific duel for a long time each attacking the other with their arrows. Vibhisana then entered the battle and started attacking the demons. Vibhisana told the vanaras that Indrajit is the last major hurdle among the demons and after killing him, only Ravana will be left. Therefore let them exert themselves to the utmost for eliminating the army of Indrajit. The vanaras attacked the demons with renewed vigour. Lakshmana struck the horses of Indrajit, and then with an arrow called Bhalla, killed his charioteer. Seeing his charioteer getting killed Indrajit became dejected and drove the chariot himself. Then four vanaras named Pramathi, Sharabha, Rabhasa and Gandhamadana quickly jumps up and pressing the horses of Indrajit with their weight, killed them. Indrajit returned to Lanka and brought another chariot. Indrajit then attacked Lakshmana and Vibhisana again, and created havoc among the vanaras. The vanaras took refuge in Lakshmana. Lakshmana in fury then tore the bow of Indrajit with his arrows. Indrajit took up another bow. Lakshmana broke that too with his arrows. Then Lakshmana released five arrows on Indrajit which penetrated his body and he fell on the ground. Becoming wounded, Indrajit released powerful arrows on Lakshmana. Lakshmana then pierced all the demons in the battlefield with three arrows each and severed the head of the charioteer of Indrajit with an arrow called Bhalla. Lakshmana then struck the horses of Indrajit with his arrows. Indrajit retaliated with his arrows. Indrajit struck all the vanaras with an arrow and then struck Vibhisana. Vibhisana in anger killed the horses of Indrajit with his mace. Indrajit hurled a javelin towards Vibhisana which Lakshmana broke with his arrows. Vibhisana attacked Indrajit with arrows which penetrated his body. The enraged Indrajit released the Yama astra towards Vibhisana which Lakshmana nullified with his Kubera astra. Lakshmana released the Varuna astra which Indrajit nullified with the Rudra astra. Then Indrajit released the Agni astra which Lakshmana nullified with his Surya astra. Indrajit then released a powerful astra which discharged hammers, swords, axes etc. Lakshmana nullified it with a Maheshwara astra. Finally Lakshmana fit the very powerful Indra astra on his bow which has never been defeated before. Lakshmana then offered a prayer to the weapon that if Sri Rama is steadfast in virtue, established in truth and is unconquerable, destroy Indrajit. Then Lakshmana stretched his bow and released his arrow. The arrow severed the head of Indrajit from his trunk. Seeing Indrajit fall, the celestials and the vanaras rejoiced. The demons fled from the battlefield. The celestials played music and showered flowers from heaven. Vibhisana and vanaras surround Lakshmana and praised him (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 86 to 90)

63. Sushena treating Lakshmana: Lakshmana who was injured during his battle with Indrajit then came to Sri Rama and Sugreeva by taking the support of Vibhisana and Hanuman. He was breathing hard. Lakshmana and Vibhisana informed Sri Rama about the slaying of Indrajit. Sri Rama became overjoyed saying that it is almost like their final victory. Sri Rama embraced Lakshmana and drew him near his lap. Then he told Sushena to treat Lakshmana, Vibhisana and the other vanaras. Sushena administered an excellent herb to Lakshmana, inhaling the smell of which Lakshmana was healed and his wounds were cured. Then Sushena treated Vibhisana and the other vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 91)

64. Ravana deciding to kill Devi Sita: Hearing the news of the death of Indrajit, Ravana swooned for a long time. Regaining his consciousness, Ravana started lamenting. Then getting enveloped by fury, Ravana assumed a terrible form. The demons hid themselves away from his gaze. Ravana decided to kill Sita and also go to the battle to kill Rama and Lakshmana wearing his invincible armour obtained as a boon from Lord Brahma. Then Ravana, drawing his sword proceeded towards Ashoka vana where Devi Sita was there. Devi Sita saw Ravana and wept thinking that he is intent on killing her either due to being refused, or due to the death of his sons, or after eliminating Rama. Seeing Devi Sita weeping, a minister called Suparshva who was of good-natured advised Ravana to desist from this unrighteous act and instead direct his rage towards Rama. Suparshva told Ravana to march towards the battle field on the day of Amavashya which fell on the next day. Ravana agreed to his advice and returned (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 92)

65. Sri Rama destroying the army of demons: Ravana ordered his army generals to march forward in the battlefield and try to kill Rama by encircling him. A terrific battle ensues between the demons and the vanaras. When the demons started striking down the vanaras in large numbers with their weapons, they sought the refuge of Sri Rama. Then Sri Rama entered the battle and started destroying the demons swiftly with his arrows. The demons could not see Rama, but only saw the destruction of their chariots, elephants, horses and the army. Then confounded with the Gandharva astra of Sri Rama, they saw thousands of Ramas on all sides, which again became one Rama. Within three hours Sri Rama destroyed the army of demons. Those surviving returned back to Lanka (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 93)

66. The female demons lamenting: The female demons who lost their husbands, brothers and other relations started lamenting. They blamed Surpanakha for bringing about this destruction of the demons. They blamed Ravana for not realising the strength of Rama even after hearing about the deaths of the powerful Khara, Dushana and Vali in his hands. They blamed Ravana for not listening to the good advice of Vibhisana. They blamed Ravana for remaining adamant even after the death of the mighty Kumbhakarna and Indrajit. Seeing evil portents they understood that the end of Ravana is near. They recollected a boon of Shiva (who was propitiated by the celestials) that for the destruction of Ravana a woman will be born. They understood that that woman is Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 94)

67. Ravana entering the battlefield: Hearing about the cries of the wives of demons in every house, Ravana became enraged and ordered Mahodara, Mahaparshva and Virupaksha to start marching to the battlefield immediately. Ravana in anger declared that today he will destroy the vanaras and kill Rama with his powerful arrows. Then he set off to the battlefield on his chariot. Evil portents appeared. The sun lost its splendour. The directions became enveloped in darkness. The birds sounded fearful sounds. The earth trembled. Clouds rained blood. Vultures showed up. Jackals howled. A meteor fell down from the sky. Ravana's left eye twitched. His left arm throbbed. His face became pale. His voice became choked. The evil portents predicted the death of Ravana. Ravana ignored those portents and marched forward towards the battlefield. A terrific battle ensued between the vanaras and the demons. Ravana in anger fell the army of the vanaras who came on his way (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 95)

68. Sugreeva killing Virupaksha: Seeing Ravana destroying the vanaras, Sugreeva went forward and started destroying the demons with rocks and trees. Virupaksha rushed forward on an elephant and struck Sugreeva with his arrows. Sugreeva in anger struck the face of his elephant with a huge tree. The elephant became wounded. Getting down from his elephant, Virupaksha advanced towards Sugreeva with a sword in hand. Sugreeva threw a huge rock on Virupaksha. Virupaksha avoided it and struck Sugreeva with his sword. Sugreeva swooned for a moment. Then regaining his balance he struck Virupaksha on his chest with his fist. Virupaksha in retaliation, struck Sugreeva with his sword, brought down his armour and made him fall. Sugreeva got up and struck Virupaksha violently with a slap. Virupaksha escaped the full force of the slap and struck Sugreeva on his chest with his fist. Seeing Virupaksha avoiding the first slap, Sugreeva slapped him again violently on the temple. Virupaksha fell down and oozing blood, died (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 96)

69. Sugreeva killing Mahodara: Seeing his army getting destroyed and the fall of Virupaksha, Ravana told Mahodara to show his prowess and crush the enemy. Mahodara with great energy pierced the arms, feet and thighs of the vanaras with his arrows. Some of the vanaras started fleeing. Some sought refuge of Sugreeva. Rushing towards Mahodara, Sugreeva hurled a large rock on him. Mahodara broke the rock with his arrows. Sugreeva then uprooted a Sala tree and hurled it on Mahodara. Mahodara chopped it with his arrows. Mahodara then injured Sugreeva with his arrows. Sugreeva picked up an iron rod from the ground and killed the horses of Mahodara with it. Mahodara picked up a mace and struck Sugreeva. Sugreeva struck the mace with his iron rod but the rod broke down. Sugreeva then picked up a club from the ground and hurled it on Mahodara. Mahodara hurled his mace and the two striking each other broke down. Sugreeva and Mahodara then wrestled with each other, and struck each other with fists and slaps. After sometime, getting exhausted, they both picked up a sword and shield from the ground. Mahodara struck Sugreeva with his sword which hits his shield. Before he lifted the sword again, Sugreeva severed his head with his own sword. The demons became dejected. The celestials rejoiced (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 97)

70. Angada killing Mahaparshva: Seeing Mahodara dead, Mahapashva started creating havoc among the armies of vanaras with his arrows, cutting of the heads and limbs of them. Seeing the vanaras getting tormented, Angada rushed forward. Angada hurled a steel rod on Mahaparshva. Mahaparshva fell down unconscious. Jambavan killed the horses of Mahaparshva and destroyed his chariot. Regaining his consciousnes, Mahaparshva again struck Angada with his arrows. Then he struck Jambavan and Gavaksha with his arrows. Angada seized an iron rod and gave a terrible blow to Mahaparshva with it. The iron rod knocked down the bow and arrow from the hand of Mahaparshva as also his helmet. Angada then slapped the temple of Mahaparshva hard with his hand. Mahaparshva in anger took up a huge axe and hurled it on Angada. Anagada evaded the axe and gave a mighty blow on the bosom of Mahaparshva with his fist. That blow broke the heart of Mahaparshva and he fell down dead on the battlefield (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 98)

71. Ravana fighting with Sri Rama: Knowing that the generals Mahaparshva, Mahodara and Virupaksha have been slain, the furious Ravana took his chariot towards Rama. Ravana released the dreadful missile of Lord Brahma called Tamasa which began to burn the vanaras. The vanaras started fleeing in all directions. Ravana then came forward and faced Sri Rama and Lakshmana. Lakshmana released several arrows on Ravana which Ravana broke down with his own arrows. Ravana then released a stream of arrows on Sri Rama. Sri Rama broke the arrows of Ravana with his Bhalla arrows. A great battle continued between Sri Rama and Ravana in which the sky was filled with their arrows. Ravana struck the forehead of Sri Rama with a row of steel arrows. Bearing those arrows with unperturbed mind, Sri Rama released the Rudra astra. The armour of Ravana prevented those arrows. Sri Rama released more arrows which Ravana struck down with his arrows. Then Ravana released powerful arrows presided over by the power of Asuras, having the heads of lions, tigers, vultures, jackals, serpents etc. Sri Rama destroyed those arrows by employing arrows presided over by Agni. The vanaras rejoiced (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 99)

72. Ravana making Lakshmana unconscious: Ravana then released arrows created by demon Maya having heads of pikes, maces, clubs, mallets, nooses and other weapons. Sri Rama made those arrows inactive by releasing arrows presided over by the Gandharvas. Ravana then released the Surya astra with the head of discus which illuminated the sky and the directions. Sri Rama broke those discuses with his own arrows. Ravana in anger pierced Rama with his arrows. Sri Rama in anger retaliated by piercing Ravana with his arrows. In the meantime Lakshmana joined the battle and releasing his arrows broke the flag-staff and bow of Ravana and chopped off the head of his charioteer. Vibhisana killed the horses of Ravana. Ravana hurled a spear on Vibhisana. Lakshmana broke it down with his arrows. Ravana hurled another powerful spear on Vibhisana. To protect Vibhisana, Lakshmana released several arrows on Ravana. Ravana now turned his anger on Lakshmana and hurled a powerful spear build by Maya. That spear fell on the bosom of Lakshmana and made him unconscious (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 100)

73. Sri Rama overpowering Ravana: When the vanaras tried to extricate the spear from the bosom of Lakshmana, Ravana prevented them with his arrows. Sri Rama himself extricated the spear during the course of the battle and broke it down. While he was doing so, Ravana pierced him with his arrows. Remaining unperturbed, Sri Rama told Hanuman and Sugreeva to guard Lakshmana and vowed to eliminate Ravana whose end-time has come. Sri Rama said that the world will now witness a battle between Rama and Ravana which they will narrate for time immemorial. Thereafter Sri Rama struck Ravana with powerful arrows. Ravana in turn released his arrows on Rama. However, Sri Rama soon overpowered Ravana with a rain his arrows, which tore him asunder. Ravana escaped from the battlefield (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 100)

74. Hanuman bringing herbs from the Himalayas: Seeing Lakshmana lying unconscious in a pool of blood, Sri Rama lamented miserably. He said he does not have the energy to fight anymore seeing the condition of Lakshmana. He does not want the kingdom anymore. Relatives can be found but not a brother similar to Lakshmana. As Lakshmana has followed him to the forest, he will now follow Lakshmana to the abode of Yama. Sushena told Sri Rama that Lakshmana is still alive. He then instructed Hanuman to go to the Oushadhi mountain, which Jambavan has already told earlier, and bring the herbs called Vishalyakarani, Sanjeevakarani and Sandhani. Hanuman went to the mountain and not being able to identify the herbs, brought the whole mountain peak to Sushena. Sushena took the herbs, crushed them and administered them to Lakshmana. Inhaling the smell of the herbs, Lakshmana was healed and rose up. The vanaras rejoiced. Sri Rama embraced him and told that without Lakshmana his life, victory or Sita does not have any purpose. Lakshmana said that Sri Rama should not speak like that for his sake but keep his words of destroying Ravana as soon as possible (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 101)

75. Indra sending his chariot to Sri Rama: Hearing the words of Lakshmana, Sri Rama started releasing powerful arrows on Ravana. Ravana from his chariot also started showering his arrows on Sri Rama. The celestials thought that the battle was not equal since Ravana is mounting on a chariot while Sri Rama is fighting from the ground. Indra then sent Matali with his chariot to Sri Rama which was yoked with green horses, and had excellent bows, arrows and other weapons in it. Sri Rama circumambulated the chariot and ascended it to fight with Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 102)

76. Sri Rama injuring Ravana, charioteer carrying him away: A terrific battle ensued between them. Ravana started sending powerful arrows presided over by the demons. Sri Rama neutralizes those with arrows presided over by the gods. Ravana sent arrows presided by serpents which made poisonous serpents rush towards Sri Rama to kill him. Sri Rama sent arrows presided by Garuda which taking the form of eagles consumed the serpents. Ravana pierced Matali with many arrows. Ravana then broke the flag-staff of Sri Rama's chariot with his arrows, and then struck his horses. Seeing the afflictions of Sri Rama in the battle, the celestials, vanaras and Vibhisana felt dejected. The entire nature itself became as if afflicted by Ravana. This provoked the anger of Sri Rama. That anger trembled the earth and agitated the rivers and the oceans. The clouds thundered. Other fearful portents also appeared. Ravana also became afraid. Ravana then took up a very powerful spear and with his fury made the earth tremble. Then he hurled that spear on Sri Rama. The spear created splashes of lightning in the sky. Sri Rama released his arrows to subdue that spear, but the spear consumed those arrows during its flight. Sri Rama became enraged and hurled the spear of Indra which Matali brought in his chariot. That spear neutralized the spear of Ravana. Then Sri Rama pierced the horses of Ravana with his arrows and struck Ravana in his chest and forehead. Ravana became grievously injured by the arrows of Rama. Getting angry he discharged his arrows on Sri Rama which Sri Rama neutralized with his arrows. The terrific battle continued. Sri Rama disparaged Ravana for his cowardly act of abducting Devi Sita and said that today he will reap its results. His head will roll down and his body will become the prey for the birds and the beasts. With great rage Sri Rama then released powerful arrows on Ravana. At the same time the vanaras also started releasing rocks on Ravana. Ravana became confused and could not properly take up his weapons. He sunk down in his chariot getting injured. The charioteer carried away Ravana from the battlefield (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 102 to 103)

77. Ravana scolding the charioteer: Ravana scolded the charioteer severely for retreating from the battlefield, thus degrading his fame who does not turn back without destroying the enemies. The charioteer satisfactorily explained the various reasons like removing the fatigue of the warrior as well as the horses. Ravana became pleased and gifted an ornament to the charioteer. Then he ordered him to drive back the chariot to the battlefield and place it in front of Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 104)

78. Sage Agastya telling the Aditya Hridayam stotra to Sri Rama: Seeing Sri Rama exhausted in the battlefield and Ravana appearing with renewed vigour (after removing his fatigue), sage Agastya appeared with the celestials and told Sri Rama to worship the Sun-god and chant the Aditya Hridayam stotra. Hearing that great stotra, the sorrow of Sri Rama (due to fatigue) vanished. He sipped the water three times and repeated the stotra by looking at the orb of the Sun. Sri Rama felt great joy and vigour. The Sun god told Sri Rama to hasten the elimination of Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 105)

79. Battle ensuing between Rama and Ravana again: Seeing the chariot of Ravana arriving, Sri Rama told Matali to drive the chariot with a steady mind and swiftly towards Ravana. By passing the chariot of Ravana on the right, Matali shook the chariot of Ravana by raising dust with the wheels. Then a great battle ensued between Rama and Ravana. The celestials arrived to see that battle. Then portents appeared indicating the victory of Rama and defeat of Ravana. Rain poured blood on the chariot of Ravana. The wind blew forming circles around his chariot from left to right. A group of vultures flew in the same direction as his chariot. Dusk of red colour like Japa flowers casted over Lanka. Meteors fell by making great sound. The ground trembled. Jackals and vultures made inauspicious sound seeing the face of Ravana. The wind blew dust around his chariot making the vision difficult. Hundreds of Sarika birds fought among themselves and fell on his chariot. The horses of Ravana released spark of fire from their hips and water from their eyes simultaneously. At the same time, good omens appeared around Sri Rama indicating his victory. Sri Rama became delighted (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 106)

80. Battle between Rama and Ravana continuing: Then a great battle ensued between Rama and Ravana. The vanaras and the demons stood motionless witnessing that battle. Rama and Ravana demonstrated the full range of their prowess. Ravana released some arrows to destroy the flag-staff of Sri Rama's chariot. But the arrows fell off without doing any damage. Sri Rama in retaliation released an arrow towards the flag-staff of Ravana's chariot. The arrow broke down the flag-staff and entered inside the earth. Ravana then targetted the horses of Sri Rama's chariot with his arrows. The divine horses remained steady and unperturbed. The enraged Ravana then hurled many arrows along with weapons like maces, clubs, spikes and axes. He also released many arrows powered by magic. Ravana also released arrows on the vanara army. Ravana was releasing his weapons desperately, as if he has given up his hope of survival. The great battle continued. Their chariots moved swiftly displaying their war movements. Both Rama and Ravana inflicted wound on each other. Sri Rama with four arrows drove back the four horses of Ravana. In retaliation Ravana struck Sri Rama with his arrows. Sri Rama remained unperturbed. Ravana then directed his arrows towards Matali. Matali also remained unperturbed. Ravana discharged a volley of various weapons. The entire earth trembled due to that battle along with the mountains and the forests. The celestials and the sages became filled with anxiety. The battle continued (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 107)

81. Sri Rama cutting heads of Ravana which appear again: Sri Rama then severed the head of Ravana which fell on the ground. Another similar head appeared on Ravana. Sri Rama again chopped off that head, which appeared again. This continued for hundreds of times. Seeing that Ravana cannot be destroyed, Sri Rama became thoughtful. Sri Rama pondered as to why the arrows which killed Khara, Dushana, Kabandha, Viradha and Vali are proving ineffective against Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 107)

82. Battle continuing for seven days without respite: The terrific battle between Rama and Ravana continued for seven days without respite either during the day or during the night (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 107)

83. Sri Rama slaying Ravana: Then Matali told Sri Rama to release the arrow presided over by Lord Brahma. That arrow was created by Lord Brahma for the celestials to wage victory war. It included the powers of Air, Fire and Sun and was terrific. Sri Rama charged that arrow with mantras and fits it in his bow. The earth along with its beings, tremble. Sri Rama released that arrow towards Ravana. That arrow pierced the chest of Ravana and tore his heart. Then the arrow penetrated inside the earth, and re-entered the quiver of Sri Rama. The bow and arrow fell from the hands of Ravana, and Ravana fell down dead. The demons fled the battlefield. The vanaras started rejoicing and proclaiming their victory. The celestials played kettle-drums, showered flowers on Sri Rama and started eulogizing him. After the death of Ravana, nature became joyful. Sugreeva, Vibhisana, Angada and Lakshmana adored Sri Rama with due ceremony. Sri Rama shone like Indra among the celestials (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 108)

84. Sri Rama directing Vibhisana to perform funeral rites of Ravana: Seeing Ravana lying dead in the battlefield, Vibhisana lamented remembering the good qualities and prowess of Ravana. Sri Rama told him not to lament for Ravana since he has faced a hero's death fighting in a combat for his country. Sri Rama directed Vibhisana to perform funeral rites of Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 109)

85. Consorts of Ravana lamenting: Hearing about the death of Ravana, his consorts came out in the battlefield and started lamenting. They expressed wonder that Ravana of great prowess who could not be defeated even by celestials is slayed by a mortal. They expressed that all this is due to the abduction of Sita and Ravana not listening to the good counsel of Vibhisana and others. Finally they expressed that all this is due to divine providence. When divine providence bears fruit, no one can avoid it (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 110)

86. Mandodari lamenting: Seeing the dead body of Ravana, Mandodari started lamenting. She said that Rama is no ordinary mortal but an incarnation of Vishnu. It is not possible for ordinary mortals to destroy Khara and Dushana in Janasthana and come to invade Lanka by building a bridge. Mandodari also indicated that Sita is not an ordinary woman. Ravana has done a great sin by abducting her and as a result he has been consumed by her asceticism. She said that all this has happened due to Ravana not listening to the advice of Vibhisana. The other consorts of Ravana consoled Mandodari (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 111)

87. Vibhisana performing the funeral rites of Ravana: Vibhisana expressed his hesitation to perform the rites of an unrighteous person like Ravana. Sri Rama told him that even though unrighteous, Ravana was a hero and their enmity has ended with his death. Vibhisana then performed the last rites of Ravana according to Vedic customs and befitting a king (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 111)

88. Sri Rama installing Vibhisana as the king: After the death of Ravana, the celestials recollected the glorious deeds of Sri Rama and returned to their respective abodes. Matali, the charioteer of Indra also returned to heaven. Sri Rama embraced Sugreeva and returned to his camp. Then he directed Lakshmana to consecrate Vibhisana to the throne of Lanka. Lakshmana procured a golden pot and asked the vanaras to bring sea-water. The vanaras quickly procured it. Lakshmana made Vibhisana sit on the throne and sprinkled sea-water as per the Vedic custom. The demons felt delighted to see Vibhisana as the king. Vibhisana presented various auspicious objects to Rama and Lakshmana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 112)

89. Sri Rama sending message to Devi Sita: Sri Rama then sent Hanuman to Devi Sita with the message that Ravana has been killed and they are well, and told Hanuman to return with the message of Devi Sita. Hanuman entered the Ashoka grove taking the permission of Vibhisana and coming near Devi Sita, saluted her. Hanuman gave her the message of Sri Rama and consoled her saying that she need not be fearful anymore since the kingdom is now under Vibhisana. Devi Sita said that she does not have anything to give in return for conveying this wonderful message. Hanuman said that her words itself is more than gifts of diamonds etc. Hanuman then sought her permission to kill the cruel demonesses who have tormented her in this place. But Devi Sita said that they were only following the orders of the king and she has forgiven them. Also, her sufferings were due to providence and her own acts committed in the past. Devi Sita said that kindness is to be shown by a noble person even to sinners, for there is nobody who has never committed a sin. Hanuman became pleased and said that she is the right wife of Sri Rama, and then asked her to give a message in return. Devi Sita said that she longed to see her husband. Hanuman went back to Sri Rama and narrated about Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 113)

90. Vibhisana bringing Devi Sita to Sri Rama: Sri Rama then told Vibhisana to bring Devi Sita there after she had bathed and decorated with cosmetics and ornaments. Vibhisana saluted Devi Sita and told her to come to Rama after adorning herself with jewels and ornaments. Devi Sita adorned herself as instructed by Sri Rama. Vibhisana then brought her to the presence of Sri Rama in a palanquin. Sri Rama became joyful and filled with sorrow at the same time. Vibhisana dispersed the demons. Sri Rama prevented that and said that the demons are as if his men. Sri Rama then told that Devi Sita should come to him on foot and not on palanquin. From the face of Sri Rama the vanaras felt that he has become indifferent towards his consort. However, seeing the face of Sri Rama, the mental sorrow of Devi Sita vanished (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 114)

91. Sri Rama disowning Devi Sita: Sri Rama said that by the killing of Ravana, his promise to destroy the enemy has been fulfilled, and the insult meted out to her has been revenged. The efforts of Hanuman, Sugreeva and Vibhisana have borne fruits. However, all these were not done for her sake but for the glory of his illustrious dynasty. She, on whose character a suspicion has arisen (due to evil looks of Ravana) may leave him and go wherever she liked. She may seek shelter of his brothers or Sugreeva or Vibhisana. Hearing the words of Sri Rama, Devi Sita trembled for a long time (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 115)

92. Devi Sita entering fire: Then she asked Sri Rama why he did not abandon her before while sending Hanuman. Her contact with Ravana is due to her helplessness and fate and not by her own will. Sri Rama has indeed never understood her, even after living with her for a long time. Devi Sita then told Lakshmana to light up a fire. Then praying to the fire god to protect her if she never swerved from Rama, she entered the fire in the presence of all the people. The celestials and sages witnessed that great scene. The demons and the vanaras started crying (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 116)

93. Lord Brahma telling Sri Rama about his real nature: When Devi Sita was entering the fire and the vanaras and demons were crying, tears also filled the eyes of Sri Rama. Then gods like Kubera, Yama, Indra, Varuna, Shiva and Brahma approached Sri Rama in their aerial cars. Sri Rama saluted them. They reminded Sri Rama of his real nature of supreme divinity and asked him why he is ignoring Devi Sita like a common man. Sri Rama told them that he thinks himself as a human being by name Rama who is the son of Dasharatha. Sri Rama asked them to tell about his real nature. Lord Brahma then told that he is Narayana himself who wields the discus. He is Varaha himself with one tusk who conquered the enemies. He is the Akshara Brahman, the Truth, which pervades the (beginning), middle and end of the universe. He is the righteousness of the people. He is Vishvakshena with four arms. He is the wielder of the Sharanga bow. He is Hrishikesha (the Lord of the senses), Purusha (the supreme soul) and Purushottama (the supreme person). He is the wielder of the unconquerable sword. He is Krishna (the bestower of joy). He is of indomitable strength. He presides over the armies of our inner forces. He is Buddhi (Intellect), Kshama (Forbearance) and Dama (Subduer of the senses). He is the beginning and the end of everything. He is Upendra (Vamana Avatara) and Madhusudana (Destroyer of demon Madhu). He performs the work of Indra and puts an end to the battle (of demons). He is Padmanabha (with Lotus in navel). He is Sharanya (the giver of refuge to all). He is the great Bull with hundred heads and thousand horns representing the soul of the Vedas. He is the creator of the three worlds. He is the giver of shelter to Siddhas and Sadhyas. He is the soul of the sacrifice representing the Vashat. He is the mystic syllable Om. He is greater than the greatest. No one can know his beginning or end. He manifests in all beings, in cows and in brahmanas; in sky, mountains as well as in rivers. He has thousand feet and hundred heads, and bearing Sri, sustain the world. He is the Sesha bearing the three worlds consisting of devas, gandharvas and the danavas. His heart is Brahma, his tongue is Saraswati, and the hairs of his body, the various devas. Closing of his eyes is night and opening of his eyes is day. He is the purifying soul of the Vedas. Without him it does not exist. The entire Cosmos is his body. Earth is his firmness. Fire is his anger. Moon is his calmness. He bears the Srivatsa. He has covered the three worlds with his strides (as Vamana Avatara) during the sacrifice of king Bali. Sita is Lakshmi and he is Vishnu of dark hue. For the purpose of slaying Ravana, he has assumed a human form. Now his purpose has been fulfilled (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 117)

94. Fire god restoring Devi Sita to Sri Rama: Then the Fire god came out of the fire with Sita in his arms. He said that she is completely pure in character. He told Sri Rama to take her back. Sri Rama said that he knew that Sita is pure and the fire ordeal was only to convince the three worlds. It is not possible for Ravana to obtain Sita who is like a blazing fire. Sita is not separate from him as sunlight is not separate from the Sun. Then getting united with Devi Sita, Sri Rama experienced great joy (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 118)

95. King Dasaratha meeting Sri Rama: Then Lord Shiva told Sri Rama that king Dasharatha who has gone to the abode of Indra has come to see him in an aerial car. Sri Rama and Lakshmana saluted their father. Dasharatha told Sri Rama that he is not happy with him even in heaven. Today, seeing and embracing him, his sorrows are gone. Dasharatha then told that his forest exile of fourteen years is over and he has fulfilled the purpose of the gods by killing Ravana. He should now return to Ayodhya and bring joy to Bharata and Kaushalya. Then becoming consecrated as the king, establish Dharma in the world. Sri Rama told Dasharatha to extend his grace to Bharata and Kaikeyi since he earlier decided to disown them. King Dasharatha agreed. Then Dasharatha said to Lakshmana that he has accrued great merit by serving Rama who is the Supreme person. Dasharatha told Sita that she should not cherish any anger towards Rama for making her undergo the fire ordeal, since it was only to demonstrate her purity. Rama is indeed her deity. Thus saying, Dasharatha went back to the abode of Indra (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 119)

96. Sri Rama requesting Indra to restore the dead vanaras: Then Indra told Sri Rama to ask for a boon since their appearance should not go in vain. Sri Rama asked Indra to restore all the vanaras who were killed in the battle for his sake, so that they can get united with their families. Also wherever those vanaras live let there be fruits and water in the trees even during the off-season. Indra bestowed the boon even though it was very difficult to grant. The vanaras who were dead, rose up with good health and rejoiced in surprise (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 120)



17. Return from Lanka to Ayodhya:

Sri Rama 1. Sri Rama returning to Ayodhya in Pushpaka Vimana: Vibhisana requested Sri Rama to stay for some more days and accept his hospitality in Lanka. However, Sri Rama declined saying that he is intent on seeing Bharata and his mothers who has previously come to Chitrakoota to take him back. Vibhisana then arranged the Pushpaka Vimana for Sri Rama. Sri Rama became amazed to see that beautiful aerial car (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 121)

2. Sri Rama requesting Vibhisana to reward the vanaras: Vibhisana then humbly asked Sri Rama what else he can do for him. Sri Rama requested Vibhisana to reward the vanaras with wealth and precious stones since they had risked their lives to get him the kingdom. Vibhisana rewarded the vanaras generously (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 122)

3. Vanaras and Vibhisana wanting to see the coronation of Sri Rama: When Sri Rama was about to take leave in his Pushpaka Vimana, the vanaras and Vibhisana requested him to take them to Ayodhya so that they can witness his coronation. Sri Rama gladly accepted their requests and asked them to mount the Pushpaka Vimana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 122)

4. Sri Rama showing Devi Sita the memorable places: While travelling with Devi Sita in the Pushpaka Vimana, Sri Rama showed her the memorable places during his forest exile. Sri Rama showed the city of Lanka established on the Trikuta mountain which was built by Vishwakarma. Sri Rama showed the battlefield and the places where the various demons were killed (Ravana, Kumbhakarna, Prahasta, Dhumraksha, Vidyunmali, Indrajit, Vikata, Virupaksha, Mahaparshva, Mahodara, Akampana, Trishira, Atikaya, Devantaka, Narantaka, Yuddonmatta, Matta, Nikumbha, Kumbha, Vajradamshtra, Damshtra, Makaraksha, Akampana, Shonitaksha, Yupaksa, Prajangha, Vidyujjihva, Yajnashatru, Suptaghna, Suryashatru, Brahmashatru). Sri Rama showed the place where Ravana was killed and his thousand wives along with Mandodari lamented. Sri Rama showed the place where after crossing the ocean, they spent a night. Sri Rama showed the bridge called Nala Setu which was built across the sea. Sri Rama showed the sea which they crossed for coming to Lanka. Sri Rama showed the mountain Mainaka which rose to give rest to Hanuman. Sri Rama showed the place within the sea where the army of vanaras were stationed. Sri Rama showed the place called Setubandha where Vibhisana first came to meet him. Sri Rama showed the beautiful Kishkindha, the city of Sugreeva where Vali was killed. Seeing the city of Kishkindha, Devi Sita wished to take Tara and the other wives of Sugreeva to Ayodhya. Granting her wish, Sri Rama halted the Pushpaka Vimana and took the wives of the vanaras. Sri Rama then showed the Rishyamukha Parvata where he first met Sugreeva and entered into friendship with him. Sri Rama showed the Pampa Sarovar where he lamented for Devi Sita and met Shabari. Sri Rama showed the place where demon Kabandha was killed. Sri Rama showed the tree under which Jatayu was lying being wounded by Ravana. Sri Rama showed Panchavati, the place where demons Khara, Dushana and Trishira were killed and the leaf-hut where they stayed, and from where Ravana abducted her. Sri Rama showed the hermitages of sages Suteekshna and Sharabhanga. Sri Rama showed the hermitage of sage Atri and Anasuya. Sri Rama showed the place where demon Viradha was killed. Sri Rama showed mountain Chitrakoota where Bharata came to see him. Sri Rama showed river Yamuna and the hermitage of sage Bharadwaja. Sri Rama showed river Ganga (which meets river Yamuna at Prayaga). Sri Rama showed Shringaverapura, the kingdom of Guha. Sri Rama showed river Sarayu and the city of Ayodhya. Sri Rama asked Devi Sita to salute Ayodhya (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 123)

5. Sri Rama halting at the hermitage of sage Bharadwaja: Sri Rama halted at the hermitage of sage Bharadwaja while returning to Ayodhya after his forest exile. Sri Rama asked about the welfare of Ayodhya. Bharadwaja assured him that all is well. Then the sage said that by virtue of his asceticism he knew everything that happened during his forest exile. Sri Rama asked the boon that the route from there to Ayodhya be filled with fruits even in the off-season (so that the vanaras can consume it). Sage Bharadwaja granted the boon (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 124)

6. Sri Rama sending Hanuman to inform Guha and Bharata: Sri Rama sent Hanuman to Shringaverapura to communicate his welfare to Guha, the king of the Nishadas. Then, told Hanuman to ask Guha about Bharata and the way to Ayodhya. Thereafter going to Ayodhya, to enquire about the welfare of Bharata and inform him about the different incidents that happened during his forest exile, and that Rama is coming to him with Vibhisana and Sugreeva. Thereafter, he told Hanuman to find out the intention of Bharata from his facial expression. If Bharata wanted to rule the entire kingdom, let him have it. As commanded by Sri Rama, Hanuman assumed a human form and left for Ayodhya. Crossing Prayaga, the confluence of rivers Ganga and Yamuna, Hanuman reached Shringaverapura. He met Guha and gave the news of Sri Rama. On the way, Hanuman saw Ramatirtha, and rivers Valukini, Varuthi, Gomati, Bhima as well as forest of Sala trees. Then reaching Nandigrama, Hanuman saw Bharata living in a hermitage like an ascetic, and ruling the kingdom placing the wooden sandals of Sri Rama. Hanuman informed him about the arrival of Sri Rama. Bharata fainted in joy. Then regaining his balance, Bharata embraced Hanuman. Bharata said that in return for this news he will give him a hundred thousand cows, hundred villages and sixteen girls of good conduct as wives. Bharata then told Hanuman to narrate the story of Sri Rama in the forest. Hanuman narrated all the incidents that happened in the forest and told him that Sri Rama is currently residing in the hermitage of sage Bharadwaja. Bharata was overjoyed to hear about Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 125 to 126)

7. Sri Rama returning to Nandigrama: Bharata commanded Shatrughna to make arrangements for receiving Sri Rama at Ayodhya. Shatrughna levelled the ground from Nandigrama to Ayodhya and sprinkled parched grains and flowers over it. He decorated Ayodhya with beautiful flags as also the buildings on the way. He sprinkled fragrant colours, garlands and flowers on the royal highway. All the mothers proceeded to Nandigrama. Bharata made arrangements to give a royal reception to Sri Rama at Nandigrama with royal parasols, soldiers, brahmanas, musicians etc. Sri Rama arrived there in the Pushpaka Vimana along with Devi Sita, Lakshmana, Vibhisana, Sugreeva and others. Bharata saluted Sri Rama. Sri Rama embraced him. Then Bharata received Devi Sita and Lakshmana. Bharata embraced the vanara chiefs like Sugreeva, Jambavan, Angada and others. The vanaras changed their forms as humans and enquired about the welfare of Bharata. Bharata embraced Sugreeva and told him that he is the fifth brother. Then Bharata greeted Vibhisana. Thereafter, Shatrughna offered his salutations to Sri Rama. Sri Rama offered his salutations to his mothers and the royal priests. The citizens of Ayodhya shouted the victory of Sri Rama. Bharata placed the sandals of Sri Rama before his feet and said that he is returning the sovereignty of Sri Rama today. Bharata said that as a keeper he has enhanced the treasury, granary and other possessions ten-fold. Seeing the affection of Bharata for his brother, Vibhisana and the vanaras shed tears. Then Sri Rama reached the hermitage of Bharata in the Pushpaka Vimana and told the aerial car to return to Kubera (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 127)




Coronation of Sri Rama (Pattabhishekam):


Sri Rama getting coronated as the king of Ayodhya 1. Bharata praying Sri Rama to accept the kingdom: Bharata then prayed to Sri Rama to accept the kingdom which he was managing as his keeper till the real master arrives. Sri Rama agreed to take back the kingdom (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

2. Adorning Sri Rama: Bharata then arranged for skilled barbers to remove the matted hairs of Sri Rama. Shatrughna arranged for the royal adornment of Sri Rama (bathing, smearing the body with sandal pastes of various colours, adorning with garlands and royal clothing). The mothers of Sri Rama adorned Devi Sita. Kaushalya adorned the wives of the monkeys (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

3. Sri Rama going around the city: Sumantra came with the royal chariot. Sri Rama ascended the chariot to see the city. Bharata took the reins and drove the chariot. Shatrughna held the royal parasol over the head of Sri Rama. Lakshmana fanned him. Vibhisana stood nearby with a white fan. The celestials praised Sri Rama from the firmament. Sugreeva and the other vanaras followed Sri Rama on thousands of elephants. Sri Rama saw the city of Ayodhya accompanied by the sounds of conches, kettle-drums, other musical instruments and songs. The citizens of Ayodhya greeted Sri Rama. Sri Rama reciprocated. Many citizens followed Sri Rama. Sri Rama narrated the achievements of vanaras to the ministers. The citizens of Ayodhya became astonished. Sri Rama also told about Vibhisana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

4. Sri Rama entering the royal palace: Sri Rama then entered the royal palace. He saluted his mothers; Kaushalya, Sumitra and Kaikeyi. Then he told Bharata to arrange for the stay of Sugreeva in that palace. Bharata took Sugreeva inside the palace (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

5. Vanaras fetching sea-water for coronation: Bharata requested Sugreeva to make arrangements for the coronation of Sri Rama. Sugreeva gave four golden jars to four leaders of vanaras and told them to fetch sea-waters from the four directions during the dawn of the next day. Jambavan, Hanuman, Vegadarshi and Rishabha brought water from five hundred rivers. Sushena brought water from the eastern sea. Rishabha brought water from the southern sea covered with stems of red sandalwood tree. Gavaya brought water from the western sea. Nala brought water from the northern sea. Shatrughna informed Vasistha that waters for the coronation of Sri Rama has been fetched by the vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

6. Sage Vasistha performing the coronation of Sri Rama: Sage Vasistha then made Sri Rama and Devi Sita sit on the royal throne. Vasistha, Vamadeva, Jabali, Kashyapa, Katyayana, Suyagna, Gautama and Vijaya consecrated Sri Rama with fragrant waters. The priests, virgins, ministers, warriors and merchants sprinkled the sap of medicinal herbs on Sri Rama. The celestials too sprinkled sap on Sri Raam from the firmament. Vasistha then placed the royal crown on the head of Sri Rama which was created by Lord Brahma during the coronation of Manu. Shatrughna held the white royal parasol over the head of Sri Rama. Sugreeva and Vibhisana held the royal white whisks. Vayudeva presented Sri Rama with a golden garland studded with gems. The celestial musicians played music and the apsaras danced. On that auspicious occasion the trees became laden with fruits and flowers (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

7. Sri Rama bestowing gifts: Sri Rama gave the brahmanas hundred thousand horses and cows along with hundred bulls. Sri Rama also gave thirty crores of gold coins along with costly jewels and clothing. Sri Rama gifted Sugreeva a beautiful garland studded with gems. Sri Rama gifted Angada a beautiful bracelet studded with cat's eye gem (vaidurya) for the upper arms. Sri Rama gave Devi Sita a beautiful pearl necklace studded with gems along with clothings and ornaments. Devi Sita wished to give the pearl necklace to Hanuman. Understanding her gesture, Sri Rama told her to give it to one with whom she is pleased and who is endowed with qualities like Tejas (Sharpness and Splendour), Dhriti (Firmness), Yashas (Glory, Fame), Daksha (Dexterity), Samarthya (Capability), Vinaya (Modesty), Naya (Wisdom, Prudence), Paurusha (Manliness), Vikrama (Prowess), Buddhi (Intelligence) etc. Devi Sita gifted that necklace to Hanuman. Sri Rama then gifted the other vanaras and Vibhisana suitably (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

8. Vanaras and Vibhisana returning: Honoured by Sri Rama, the vanaras returned to Kishkindha. Vibhisana returned to Lanka (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

9. Sri Rama establishing the rule of Dharma: Sri Rama asked Lakshmana to take the position of the crown prince. Lakshmana declined. Sri Rama then made Bharata the crown prince. Sri Rama performed several yagnas like Paundarika, Ashvamedha and Vajapeya to propitiate the gods. Sri Rama ruled for ten thousand years and performed a hundred Ashwamedha yagnas. Lakshmana served as a companion during the rule of Sri Rama. The kingdom became free of grief - no widows lamenting, no untimely death, no fear of wild animals, no terrible diseases and no thieves and robbers existing. Looking at Sri Rama, everyone became intent on virtue and their talks became centred around "Rama, Rama, Rama". The trees became filled with flowers and fruits. Clouds rained on time. The four classes of people became intent on performing their respective duties. By listening to the deeds of Sri Rama, may all be filled with joy (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).






Bharatavarsha - The Land of Gods and Sages:

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Meditation on Earth and Life: >>



Om, May there be Peace in Heaven,
May there be Peace in the Sky,
May there be Peace in the Earth,

(Shanti Mantra of Upanishad)


Preserve Nature,
And Nature will preserve Us,
Simplify Life,
And help Nature thrive,
Plant Trees,
And make our planet Green.

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Last updated on May-2022

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