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Valmiki Ramayana

Incarnation of Sri Rama:


1. Ayodhya: (River Sarayu)

Sri Rama 1. King Dasharatha bringing sage Rishyashringa: King Dasharatha brings sage Rishyashringa to Ayodhya to perform the Vedic ritual of getting a progeny (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 11).

2. King Dasharatha performing the Ashwamedha yagna: King Dasharatha performs the Ashwamedha yagna before the Putrakameshti yagna (under the guidance of sage Vasistha and sage Rishyashringa) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 12 to 14).

3. King Dasharatha starting the Putrakameshti yagna: King Dasharatha starts the Putrakameshti yagna presided by sage Rishyashringa. Celestials pray to Lord Vishnu to incarnate as the son of king Dasharatha (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 15).

4. Yagna Purusha emerging: Yagna Purusha emerges during the Putrakameshti yagna with a golden vessel with divine dessert (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 16).

5. King Dasharatha giving the divine dessert: King Dasharatha gives the divine dessert to his four queens (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 16).

6. Lord Brahma asking Devas to procreate vanaras: Lord Brahma asks the Devas to procreate vanaras from their parts to help Lord Rama during his incarnation (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 17).

7. Sri Rama incarnating at Ayodhya: Sri Rama incarnates as the son of Kaushalya on the Chaitra Shukla Navami (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 18).

Event: Sri Rama incarnating at Ayodhya (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 11 to 18)
Pilgrimage: Ayodhya (Faizabad district, Uttar Pradesh)
Festival: Rama Navami (Chaitra Shuklapaksha Navami)


Journey of Sri Rama with Vishwamitra:


• Sage Vishwamitra arriving: Sage Vishwamitra arrives and requests king Dasharatha to hand over Rama to him for ten days to protect his ritual from demons (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 18 to 21).

1. Koshala: (River Sarayu)

Sri Rama with Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama starting from Ayodhya: Sri Rama and Lakshmana starts from Ayodhya with sage Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 22).

2. Sri Rama receiving Bala and Atibala mantras: Sri Rama receives the Bala and Atibala mantras on the bank of river Sarayu. Sage Vishwamitra says that these mantras give great strength and one can be free from illness and fatigue. Sri Rama spends a night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 22).

Event: Sri Rama receiving Bala and Atibala mantras (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 22)



2. Anga: (Confluence of rivers Ganga and Sarayu)

Sri Rama with Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama visiting Anga Ashrama (Confluence of rivers Ganga and Sarayu): Sri Rama visits the Anga province and hears the story of Lord Shiva burning Kamadeva. Spends a night in a hermitage there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 23).

2. Sri Rama crossing river Ganga: Sri Rama crosses river Ganga at Anga and hears about river Sarayu originating from lake Manasa (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 24).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Anga Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 23 to 24)
Pilgrimage: Kameshwar Dham (Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh)



3. Tataka Forest:

Sri Rama slaying demoness Tataka 1. Sri Rama visiting Tataka Forest: Sri Rama visits the Tataka forest and hears the story of demoness Tataka from sage Vishwamitra. Tataka was a yaksha (daughter of Sunda) who becomes a demoness by the curse of sage Agastya. Her son was Mareecha who also becomes a demon by the curse of the sage (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 24 to 25).

2. Sri Rama slaying demoness Tataka: Sri Rama slays demoness Tataka on the command of sage Vishwamitra. Devas extol him. Spends a night in the forest (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 26).

3. Sri Rama receiving divine weapons: Sri Rama receives divine weapons from sage Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 27).

4. Sri Rama receiving knowledge of annuling them: Sri Rama receives the knowledge of annuling the divine weapons from sage Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 28).

Event: Sri Rama slaying demoness Tataka (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 24 to 28)
Pilgrimage: Tataka Vanam (Buxar district, Bihar)



4. Siddhashrama:

Sri Vamana Sri Rama protecting yagna of Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama visiting Siddhashrama: Sri Rama comes to the outskirts of Siddhashrama (after coming out of the Tataka forest) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 28).

2. Sri Rama hearing the story of Vamana avatara: Sri Rama hears the story of Vamana avatara of Lord Vishnu and the disturbances being caused by the demons. Spends a night in the hermitage (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 29).

3. Sri Rama guarding the yagna of Vishwamitra: Sri Rama guards the yagna of Vishwamitra for six days and nights. Repels demon Mareecha and slays demon Subahu (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 30).
• Sri Rama spends the night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 31).

4. Sri Rama hearing about the divine bow of king Janaka: Sri Rama hears the story of the Vedic yagna of king Janaka and bow of Lord Shiva from the sages. Sri Rama along with the sages start their journey from Siddhashrama towards Mithila to see the divine bow (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 31).

Event: Sri Rama hearing about Vamana incarnation (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 29)
Event: Sri Rama protecting yagna of Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 30)
Pilgrimage: Vamaneshwar Dham (Buxar district, Bihar)



5. Girivraja: (River Sona)

Sri Rama with sage Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama visiting Girivraja: On the way from Siddhashrama to Mithila, Sri Rama camps on the bank of river Sona at Girivraja (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 31).

2. Sri Rama hearing about the lineage of Vishwamitra: Sri Rama hears the story of the lineage of Vishwamitra. Sri Rama spends the night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 32 to 34).

Event: Sri Rama hearing about Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 31 to 34)
Lineage: Kusha, Kushanabha, Gadhi, Vishwamitra (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 32 to 34)
Pilgrimage: Rajgir (Nalanda district, Bihar)



6. Girivraja to Mithila: (River Ganga)

Sri Rama with sage Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama camping at River Ganga: Sri Rama camps on the bank of river Ganga (while travelling from Girivraja towards Mithila) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 35).

2. Sri Rama hearing about the descent of Ganga: Sri Rama hears the story of the descent of river Ganga from sage Vishwamitra. Sri Rama spends the night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 35 to 44).

Event: Sri Rama hearing about Ganga (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 35 to 44)
Lineage: Sagara (son of Asita and grandson of Bharata), Asamanja, Amshuman, Dilipa, Bhagiratha (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 70)
Incarnation: Kapil Muni



7. Vishala:

Sri Rama with sage Vishwamitra 1. Sri Rama visiting Vishala: Sri Rama crosses river Ganga and arrives at Vishala (while going towards Mithila) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 45).

2. Sri Rama hearing the story of the churning of Milky Ocean: Sri Rama hears the story of the churning of the Milky Ocean (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 45).

3. Sri Rama hearing the story of the penance of Diti: Sri Rama hears the story of the penance of Diti in Kushaplava which is Vishala (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 46).
• Sri Rama hears the story of Indra fragmenting the foetus of Diti and emergence of Marudganas (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 47).

4. Sri Rama hearing about the lineage of kings of Vishala: Sri Rama hears about the lineage of kings of Vishala (with current king Sumati coming to receive them). Spends a night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 47).



8. Mithila outskirts:

Sri Rama redeeming Devi Ahalya 1. Sri Rama visiting the Gautama Ashrama: Sri Rama reaches outskirts of Mithila and hears the story of the curse on Devi Ahalya and her unseen penance (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 48).

2. Sri Rama redeeming Devi Ahalya: Sri Rama redeems Devi Ahalya from her curse and she becomes united with sage Gautama (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 49).

Event: Sri Rama delivering Devi Ahalya (Gautama Ashrama) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 48 to 49)
Pilgrimages: Ahalya Asthan (Darbhanga district, Bihar), Brahmapur (Darbhanga district, Bihar)



9. Mithila:

Sri Rama breaking the bow and marrying Devi Sita Sri Rama marrying Devi Sita Sri Rama humbling Parashurama 1. Sri Rama reaching the palace of king Janaka: Sri Rama reaches Mithila. Sage Vishwamitra tells king Janaka about Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 50).
• Sri Rama hears the story of sage Vishwamitra from sage Shatananda (who is also the son of Devi Ahalya). Spends the night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 51 to 65).
• Sri Rama hears the story of the bow of Lord Shiva from king Janaka (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 66).
• Sri Rama hears the story of the appearance of Devi Sita from king Janaka (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 66).

2. Sri Rama breaking the bow of Lord Shiva: Sri Rama breaks the bow of Lord Shiva in the palace of king Janaka (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 67).

3. Sri Rama marrying Devi Sita:
• King Janaka sends message to king Dasharatha at Ayodhya. King Dasharatha arrives (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 68 to 69).
• Sage Vashistha narrates the lineage of Sri Rama (Ikshwaku dynasty) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 70).
• King Janaka narrates his lineage (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 71).
• Sage Vishwamitra proposes the marriage of Bharata and Shatrughna to the daughters of king Kushadhwaja (brother of king Janaka) (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 72).
• Sri Rama marries Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 73).

4. Sri Rama vanquishing the pride of Parashurama: Sri Rama vanquishes the pride of Parashurama after hearing the legend of the bows of Shiva and Vishnu (Valmiki Ramayana - Bala Kanda - 74 to 76).

Pilgrimages: Mithila (Baliraajgadh in Madhubani district, Bihar), Mithila (Sitamarhi in Sitamarhi district, Bihar), Mithila (Janakpur in Dhanusha district, Nepal)
Incarnation: Parashurama





Journey of Sri Rama during forest exile:


1. Koshala: (Rivers Tamasa, Vedashruti, Gomati and Syandika)

Sri Rama departing to forest 1. Sri Rama starting from Ayodhya: Sri Rama starts from Ayodhya (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 45).

2. Sri Rama camping on the bank of river Tamasa: Sri Rama camps on the bank of river Tamasa for one night (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 45 to 46).
• River Tamasa: Citizens of Ayodhya following finds that Sri Rama has left (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 47).
• Citizens of Ayodhya laments after reaching their houses (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 48).

3. Sri Rama crossing river Vedashruti: Sri Rama crosses river Vedashruti within the Koshala kingdom (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 49).

4. Sri Rama crossing river Gomati: Sri Rama crosses river Gomati within the Koshala kingdom (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 49).

5. Sri Rama crossing river Syandika: Sri Rama crosses river Syandika and the boundary of the Koshala kingdom (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 49)
• Sri Rama bids farewell to the Koshala kingdom with joined palms (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 50).



2. Sringaverapura: (River Ganga)

Sri Rama with Guha 1. Sri Rama visiting Sringaverapura: Sri Rama reaches river Ganga at Sringaverapura and camps on its bank under an Ingudi tree. Guha (Nishadraj) comes to meet him. Sri Rama spends a night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 50 to 51)

2. Sri Rama crossing river Ganga: Sri Rama dresses like ascetics making his hair matted with Banyan tree latex and wearing tree bark. Sends back Sumantra. Crosses river Ganga in a boat built by Guha. Devi Sita offers prayer to river Ganga (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 52).

Event: Sri Rama meeting Guha (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 51 to 52)
Pilgrimage: Shringaverpur (Allahabad district, Uttar Pradesh)



3. Vatsa:

1. Sri Rama visiting Vatsa: Sri Rama reaches Vatsa after crossing river Ganga and rests under a tree to spend the night (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 52).
• Sri Rama tries to send back Lakshmana who did not agree. Spends the night under a Banyan tree (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 53).

2. Sri Rama proceeding towards Prayaga: Sri Rama proceeds towards Prayaga (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 54).



4. Prayaga: (Confluence of rivers Ganga and Yamuna)

Sri Rama visiting hermitage 1. Sri Rama visiting Prayaga: Sri Rama reaches Prayaga, the holy confluence of rivers Ganga and Yamuna (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 54).

2. Sri Rama visiting Bharadwaja Ashrama: Sri Rama visits the Bharadwaja Ashrama at Prayaga (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 54).
• Sage Bharadwaja extended his hospitality and says he can stay there. But Sri Rama asks for a suitable place far off from Ayodhya. Sage Bharadwaja suggests Chitrakoota which is a place of penance of many siddhas. Sri Rama spends a night in that hermitage (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 54).
• Next morning sage Bharadwaja tells the route to Chitrakoota from there, crossing river Yamuna, coming to a Banyan tree called Shyama and from there proceeding to Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 55).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Bharadwaja Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 54 to 55)
Pilgrimage: Prayag (Allahabad district, Uttar Pradesh)



5. Prayaga to Chitrakoota: (River Yamuna)

Sri Rama departing to forest 1. Sri Rama crossing river Yamuna: Sri Rama crosses river Yamuna by preparing a raft of wood. Devi Sita offers prayers to river Yamuna in the middle of the river (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 55).

2. Sri Rama reaching banyan tree Shyama: Sri Rama reaches the Banyan (Nyagrodha) tree called Shyama which was having the cool shade of green leaves. Devi Sita prays to the Banyan tree circumambulating it with joined palms (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 55).

3. Sri Rama travelling through forest: Sri Rama travels through the forest along the bank of river Yamuna and spends a night there. Next morning again starts the journey towards Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 55 to 56).

Event: Sri Rama travelling from Prayaga to Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 55 to 56)



6. Chitrakoota: (River Mandakini)

Rishi Valmiki Sri Rama staying at Chitrakoota Sri Rama giving his padukas to Bharata Rishi Atri and Devi Anusuiya 1. Sri Rama visiting Valmiki Ashrama: Sri Rama visits the Valmiki Ashrama at Chitrakoota. The sage extends cordial welcome to them (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 56).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Valmiki Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 56)

2. Sri Rama staying at Chitrakoota: Sri Rama builds a parna shala through Lakshmana and consecrates it with mantras. The parna shala was having altars and places of worship (Chaityas and Ayatanas). Sri Rama stays in that parna shala in the beautiful mountain forest where flowed river Malyavati (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 56).

3. Sri Rama describing the beauty of Chitrakoota: Sri Rama describes the beauty of Chitrakoota mountain to Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 94).

4. Sri Rama describing the beauty of river Mandakini: Sri Rama describes the beauty of river Mandakini to Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 95).

Event: Sri Rama staying at Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 94 to 94)
Pilgrimage: Chitrakoot (Chitrakoot district, Uttar Pradesh)
Nature: Trees of Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 94)

5. Sri Rama meeting Bharata: Sri Rama meets Bharata (who was choking with emotion and also clad like ascetics with bark) who comes to Chitrakoota with an army to take Rama back (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 99).
• Sri Rama indirectly gives instructions to Bharata about the duties of a king (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 100).
• Bharata informs Sri Rama about the death of Dasharatha and requests him to accept the throne (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 101 to 102).
• Sri Rama faints hearing the news of this father's death and regaining consciousness sorrowfully offers oblations with Ingudi fruit pulp in the waters of river Mandakini (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 103).
• Sri Rama meets mother Kaushalya and others (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 104).
• Bharata tries to persuade Sri Rama to accept the kingdom through various arguments. Sri Rama refutes them (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 105 to 107).
• Brahmana Jabali tries to persuade Sri Rama to accept the kingdom through various arguments. Sri Rama refutes them (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 108 to 109).
• Sage Vasistha tells about creation and the lineage of Sri Rama. He says that the eldest son only can become the king. He asks Sri Rama to accept the throne. But Sri Rama says that his father's words cannot be disregarded (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 110 to 111).
• Bharata then resolves to undertake fast-unto-death sitting on a Kusha grass. Sri Rama rebukes him saying that it does not befit a Kshatriya. The citizens supports Sri Rama. Bharata says he can instead go for forest exile, but Sri Rama says the words of father cannot be exchanged. Sri Rama says that after returning from forest exile he will rule the kingdom with the help of his brothers (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 111).
• The sages request Bharata to agree to the words of Sri Rama. When Bharata tells him about his inability to rule the kingdom, Sri Rama tells him to seek the advice of the council of ministers. Finally Bharata agrees and asks for the padukas (sandals) of Sri Rama (as a representative of the actual king). Sri Rama gives his padukas to Bharata (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 112).

Event: Sri Rama meeting Bharata at Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 101 to 112)

6. Sri Rama seeing anxiety in sages: Sri Rama sees anxiety in the sages living there and they were leaving Chitakoota. Upon enquire, he comes to know of demon Khara tormenting the sages due to enmity towards Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 116).

7. Sri Rama leaving Chitrakoota: Sri Rama decides to leave Chitrakoota: Sri Rama decides to leave Chitrakoota due to the hauting memories of his brothers and mother and the spoilage done by the armies of Bharata (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 117).

8. Sri Rama visiting Atri-Anusuya Ashrama: Sri Rama visits the Atri-Anusuya Ashrama while leaving Chitrakoota (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 117 to 119).
• Devi Anasuya instructs Devi Sita about the duties of a devoted wife and gives here gifts of divine garments and ornaments. Sri Rama spends a night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 117 to 119).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Atri-Anusuya Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Ayodhya Kanda - 117 to 119)



7. Dandakaranya:

Sri Rama encountering demon Viradha Rishi Sharabhanga Sri Rama in hermitage Sri Rama staying at Dandaka forest Rishi Agastya 1. Sri Rama entering Dandakaranya: Sri Rama sees a cluster of hermitages of sages nestled within the sacred environment of Vedic tradition. The sages welcome him and seeks his protection. Sri Rama spends a night there (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 1).

2. Sri Rama encountering demon Viradha: Sri Rama encounters demon Viradha who was having a monstrous appearance. Viradha first captures Devi Sita to marry her (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 2).
• Viradha tells Sri Rama about his boon from Lord Brahma by which he cannot be cut by weapons. Sri Rama fights with Viradha but his weapons become ineffective. Leaving Devi Sita, Viradha lifts Sri Rama and Lakshmana on his shoulders and carries them away (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 3).
• Devi Sita screams. Sri Rama and Lakshmana severs the arms of Viradha and pounds him, but could not kill him. Viradha tells that he is gandharva Tumburu cursed by Kubera and he will be redeemed by Rama. He then tells about sage Sharabanga. Sri Rama buries Viradha in a pit (and redeems him) (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 4).

3. Sri Rama visiting Sharabhanga Ashrama: Sri Rama visits the hermitage of sage Sharabhanga. During that time, Indra comes to take the sage to the abode of Brahma as a fruit of his great penance, but the sage refuses since he was waiting for the arrival of Sri Rama. Sage Sharabhanga offers the fruits of his penance to Sri Rama who refuses asking only for a place of stay. Sage Sharabhanga tells Sri Rama to go to sage Suteekshna (following river Mandakini). Then he enters the sacred fire, gives up his body and goes to the abode of Brahma (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 5).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Sharabhanga Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 5)

4. Sages approaching Sri Rama for protection: Sri Rama meets many sages who perform severe penance in that deep forest. They approach him for protection from demons. Sri Rama vows to eliminate the demons (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 6).

5. Sri Rama visiting Suteekshna Ashrama: Sri Rama visits the hermitage of sage Suteekshna. The sage cordially welcomes him saying that he was waiting for him. He offers the fruits of his penance to Sri Rama who refuses asking only for a place of stay. Sage Suteekshna suggests his own hermitage but tells about the problem of herds of wild animals visiting that place. Sri Rama spends a night there and decides to move on. Sage Suteekshna tells him to come back again after seeing all the hermitages (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 7 to 8).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Suteekshna Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 7 to 8)

6. Devi Sita expressing concern: Devi Sita raises the concern about killing the demons in the forest without enmity. Sri Rama says that the sages have approached him for refuge, and he must abide by his words given to the brahmanas (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 9 to 10).

7. Sri Rama visiting Pancha Apsara Lake: Sri Rama visits the Pancha Apsara Lake and hears the story of sage Mandakarni marrying five Apsaras and living in that lake (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Pancha Apsara Lake (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11)

8. Sri Rama visiting hermitages of various sages for ten years: Sri Rama visits various hermitages of sages for ten years while living in Dandakaranya (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

9. Sri Rama revisiting Suteekshna Ashrama: Sri Rama revisits Suteekshna Ashrama. Sri Rama asks about the hermitage of Agastya. Sage Suteekshna happily gives the direction, also telling about the hermitage of sage Agastya on the way (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

Event: Sri Rama revisiting Suteekshna Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11)

10. Sri Rama starting for Agastya Ashrama: Sri Rama starts for Agastya Ashrama and reaches near the hermitage of the brother of sage Agastya. On the way Sri Rama tells the legend of demons Ilvala and Vatapi whom sage Agastya vanquished to save the brahmanas (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

11. Sri Rama visiting the hermitage of the brother of sage Agastya: Sri Rama visits the hermitage of the brother of sage Agastya and spends one night there. (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

Event: Sri Rama visiting the Ashrama of sage Agastya's brother (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11)

12. Sri Rama reaching the precincts of the hermitage of sage Agastya: Sri Rama reaches the precincts of the hermitage of sage Agastya (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11).

13. Sri Rama visiting Agastya Ashrama: Sri Rama visits Agastya Ashrama. The sage was also yearning to see him and welcomes him cordially (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 12).
• Sage Agastya gives Sri Rama a bow of Vishnu, arrows of Brahma and the sword of Indra (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 12).
• Sage Agastya praises Devi Sita for her devotion to husband, and not leaving him during the time of ill-fortune (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 13).
• Sri Rama asks for a place of stay in the forest. Sage Agastya suggests Panchavati which is two yojanas from there (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 13).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Agastya Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 11 to 13)

14. Sri Rama meeting Jatayu: Sri Rama meets Jatayu on the way to Panchavati. Jatayu tells about his lineage, mentioning about the dynasty of sage Kashyapa. Jatayu says that he is a friend of Dasharatha and offers his service of protection to Devi Sita in the forest. Sri Rama gladly agrees and takes Jatayu with him (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 14).



8. Panchavati (Dandakaranya outskirts): (River Godavari)

Sri Rama staying at Panchavati Sri Rama encountering Surpanakha Sri Rama killing demons Khara and Dushana Sri Rama going after golden deer Sri Rama killing demon Mareecha Kidnap of Devi Sita 1. Sri Rama staying at Panchavati: Sri Rama reaches Panchavati where river Godavari flowed. Lakshmana builds a beautiful cottage (parna shala). Seeing the cottage Sri Rama was filled with joy and embraces Lakshmana (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 15).
• One day while going for bath on river Godavari, Lakshmana describes the beauty of the Hemanta Ritu to Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 16).

Event: Sri Rama staying at Panchavati (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 15 to 16)
Pilgrimage: Panchavati (Nashik district, Maharashtra)
Nature: Trees of Panchavati (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 15)

2. Sri Rama encountering Surpanakha: Sri Rama encounters demoness Surpanakha at Panchavati. Lakshmana defaces here. Surpanakha goes to brother Khara to report this (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 17 to 18).

Event: Sri Rama encountering Surpanakha (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 17 to 18)

3. Surpanakha reporting to Khara: Supanakha tells about her condition to brother Khara and instigates him to take revenge. Khara sends fourteen demons to eliminate Sri Rama. (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 19).

4. Sri Rama slaying the demons of Khara: The fourteen demons of Khara goes to Panchavati with Surpanakha and wages a war with Sri Rama. Sri Rama slays them all (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 20).

5. Surpanakha reporting to Khara: Supanakha goes to Khara and reports the death of the demons. She advises Khara to wage a war against Rama else Rama may eliminate the demons (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 21).

6. Sri Rama slaying Khara and Dushana: Khara marches with fourteen thousand demons to wage a war with Sri Rama. On the way they see various evil omens (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 20 to 23).
• Sri Rama destroys the army of demons single-handedly in the battle (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 24 to 25).
• Sri Rama destroys demon Dushana with his army in the battle (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 26).
• Sri Rama destroys demon Trishira in the battle (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 27).
• Sri Rama destroys demon Khara in the battle after a long encounter. The devas shower flowers on Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 28 to 30).

Event: Sri Rama slaying Khara and Dushana (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 20 to 30)

6. Akampana reporting to Ravana: Akampana, a spy of Ravana reports the destruction of Khara at Janasthana to Ravana at Lanka (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 31).
• When Ravana decides to march against Sri Rama, Akampana describes the extreme prowess of Sri Rama and dissuades Ravana, for Rama is invincible (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 31).
• Instead Akampana describes the beauty of Devi Sita and suggests Ravana to abduct her so that Sri Rama dies due to the grief of loss of his beloved wife (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 31).

7. Ravana going to Mareecha: Next morning Ravana goes to Mareecha in a chariot. Mareecha extends his hospitality. Ravana tells about his intention of abducting Devi Sita. Mareecha dissuades Ravana describing the great prowess of Rama and says that it is a suicidal thought Ravana returns to Lanka (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 31).

8. Surpanakha going to Ravana: Surpunakha goes to Ravana and scorns him telling that a king oblivious of his dangers in the kingdom will not survive long. When Ravana asks about Sri Rama, Surpanakha describes his great prowess. Then Surpanakha describes the great beauty of Devi Sita and lures Ravana to abduct her (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 33 to 34).

9. Ravana again going to Mareecha: Hearing the words of Surpanakha and thinking over it Ravana firmly decides his course of action (of abducting Devi Sita). He secretly takes his chariot and travels to the hermitage of Mareecha. The beauty of the coastline is described. Ravana sees a huge banyan tree similar to that associated with the legend of Garuda who carries a broken banyan tree branch on his beak (not allowing it to fall) so as not to disturb the penance of the sages over it (thus getting the blessings of the sages). Mareecha extends his hospitality to Ravana. Ravana tells his plan of the golden deer to Mareecha and requests his help. Mareecha becomes afraid and tries to dissuade Ravana saying that it will bring his own downfall. Mareecha recollects his two previous encounters with Rama. Ravana rejects his advice and says that he will kill him if he does not obey him (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 35 to 41).

9. Mareecha becoming a golden deer: Mareecha goes near the hermitage of Rama on the chariot of Ravana. He assumes the form of a golden deer and moves near the hermitage. Devi Sita comes to pluck flowers and sees the deer in astonishment (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 42).

10. Sri Rama going after the golden deer: Devi Sita calls Sri Rama and Lakshmana and shows them the golden deer. She asks Sri Rama to get the deer alive, or if not possible dead, so that she will sit on the beautiful deer-skin. Lakshmana warns that it is demon Mareecha in disguise. Sri Rama says that even if it is demon Mareecha, it is his duty to eliminate him. Sri Rama goes after the golden deer asking Lakshmana to guard Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 43).

11. Sri Rama killing Mareecha: Sri Rama goes after the golden deer to capture it. The deer eludes him for a long time playing hide-and-seek and draws him away to a far-off place. Finally Sri Rama shoots an arrow and pierces the heart of Mareecha in the form of deer. Mareecha abandons the deer form and coming back to the demon form yells "Ha Sita, Ha Lakshmana", so as to also draw away Lakshmana from Devi Sita. Sri Rama understanding the danger hastily returns towards Panchavati (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 44).

12. Devi Sita making Lakshmana search for Rama: When the cry of Mareecha is heard, Devi Sita asks Lakshmana to go and help Sri Rama. When Lakshmana tries to convince her that it is the voice of demons, Devi Sita accuses her of casting an eye on her. This becomes unbearable for Lakshmana who starts for Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 45 to 46).

13. Ravana coming in the guise of a Sannyasi: When Lakshmana left, Ravana assumes the guise of a Sannyasi and comes to the cottage of Devi Sita. He praises her beauty and asks who she was and why she is alone in the forest. Seeing the garb of a Sannayasi, Devi Sita extends her hospitality, eagerly awaiting for Sri Rama to return (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 46).

14. Ravana trying to woo Devi Sita: When Ravana asks about Devi Sita, she tells the story of how and why she is in this forest. She then asks about Ravana. Ravana tells about his identity and asks her to become his wife in Lanka. Devi Sita praises the qualities of Rama and tells him that she is tied with Rama in vow and there can be no comparison between Rama and Ravana. Ravana extols his own glory and points to the hapless situation of Rama. Devi Sita rejects him (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 47 to 48).

14. Ravana abducting Devi Sita: Ravana in anger assumes his own form, abducts Devi Sita and takes her in his air chariot. Devi Sita wails and tells the forest deities to inform Rama about her abduction. Devi Sita sees Jatayu and tells him also to inform Rama about her abduction (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 49).

15. Jatayu confronting Ravana: Jatayu first gives advice to Ravana about the probity of king, but of no avail. He then fights with Ravana, damaging his chariot and weapons, and injuring him with his beaks and claws. Finally, Ravana takes up his sword and cut off the wings of Jatayu. Devi Sita cries hugging Jatayu as if he was his own relative (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 51).

16. Nature lamenting the abduction of Devi Sita: The whole Nature laments when Devi Sita was being abducted by Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 52).

17. Devi Sita denouncing Ravana: Devi Sita denounces Ravana for his cowardly action of abduction (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 53).

18. Devi Sita dropping her jewellery: While going over Pampa Sarovar region and seeing five vanaras, Devi Sita bundles her jewellery and drops them without Ravana noticing (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 54).

19. Ravana bringing Devi Sita to Lanka: Ravana brings Devi Sita to Lanka and tells the female demons to take care of her and also commissions some demons to spy over Rama in Janasthana. She shows Devi Sita his beautiful palace with abundant luxuries and tries to woo her again. Devi Sita again praises the qualities of Sri Rama and chastises Ravana severely, predicting his downfall. Ravana in anger orders the demoness to hold her captive in Ashoka garden and try to remove her pride. He gives a month's time to Devi Sita to accept his proposal or be ready to lose her life (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 55 to 56).

Event: Ravana abducting Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 46 to 49)

20. Sri Rama returning after the kidnap of Devi Sita: Sri Rama faces many ill-omens from jackals, deers and birds while hurriedly returning to his hermitage after killing Mareecha (in the form of the golden deer). He becomes apprehensive that Devi Sita must have been harmed by the demons. In his return path he meets Lakshmana and his apprehension becomes almost a certainty. He chastises Lakshmana for leaving Devi Sita unguarded. Returning to his hermitage he finds it empty and searches in various places where Devi Sita used to visit. Not finding Devi Sita he plunges in grief. Sri Rama reprimands Lakshmana for the dereliction of the duty of guarding Devi Sita even though Lakshmana tries to explain his situation. (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 57 to 59).

21. Sri Rama searching for Devi Sita: Sri Rama laments and moves about in the forest from tree to tree asking about Devi Sita. He also asks the animals (deers and elephants) about Devi Sita. He asks the Sun and the Air who are the witnesses of all deeds. He asks the river Godavari. Lakshmana tries to console him and give hope, but not finding Devi Sita, Sri Rama plunges in despair (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 60 to 63).



9. Janasthana and outskirts:

Sri Rama searching for Devi Sita Sri Rama performing the last rites of Jatayu Sri Rama encountering demon Kabandha 1. Sri Rama finding the flowers and jewelleries of Devi Sita: Sri Rama searches the banks of river Godavari but could not find Devi Sita. He asks the forest animals. The animals rise to their feet and shows the southward direction and the sky. Getting the hint Sri Rama goes in the southward direction. He find the flowers and jewelleries of Devi Sita along with her footprint, a broken chariot and the footprints of demon. Sri Rama becomes furious like Rudra and takes up his bow to destroy the three worlds. Lakshmana pacifies Rama and tells him to proceed with the search (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 64 to 66).

2. Sri Rama meeting the dying Jatayu: Sri Rama meets the wounded Jatayu who tells about Ravana abducting Devi Sita. Seeing his condition, Sri Rama hugs him and laments for him. Jatayu tells about Ravana and gives up his life. Sri Rama cremates him like his own relative. Jatayu goes to the higher heavenly realm (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 67 to 68).

3. Sri Rama passing through the Krauncha forest: Sri Rama enters the Krauncha forest, three kroshas from Janasthana, while searching for Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 69).

4. Lakshmana encountering demoness Ayomukhi: Sri Rama enters the Kabandha forest region, between Krauncha forest and Matanga ashrama while searching for Devi Sita. A demoness by name Ayomukhi becomes impressed by Lakshmana and captures him in her embrace saying that he is her lover. Lakshmana cuts off her nose, one ear and a breast. The demoness runs away (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 69).

5. Sri Rama encountering demon Kabandha: Sri Rama enters the Kabandha forest while searching for Devi Sita. Lakshmana sees many evil portents and warns Rama. They encounter the gigantic demon Kabandha, who is headless and was like a gigantic bag with a single eye. The demon could stretch his arms upto a distance of one yojana. Kabandha captures Sri Rama and Lakshmana with his arms. They cut off both his arms. Lakshmana then reveals their identity to Kabandha. Kabandha in turn tells about the curse of sage Sthulashira and striking with thunderbolt by Indra, due to which he gained the demon form. The sage as well as Indra also said that Sri Rama will liberate him from the curse. On the request of Kabandha, Sri Rama incinerates him. Kabandha regains his celestial form and tells Sri Rama about Sugreeva in Rishyamukha Parvata, advising him to enter into an oath of friendship with him. He indicates the route of the Rishyamukha Parvata, tells about Matanga ashrama and Shabari and describes the beauty of Pampa Sarovar (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 69 to 73).



10. Pampa Sarovar:

Sri Rama meeting Shabari Hanuman carrying Sri Rama 1. Sri Rama visiting Matanga Ashrama: Sri Rama visits the Matanga Ashrama near Pampa Sarovar and meets Shabari, a lady of great asceticism. Shabari, who was waiting for Sri Rama, worships him and shows him the places in the ashrama sanctified by her spiritual masters (who had left their bodies and ascended to the divine realm, predicting that Sri Rama will come there). Upon the arrival of Sri Rama her ascesis becomes accomplished and she also ascends to the divine realm casting her body in the presence of Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 74).

Event: Sri Rama visiting Matanga Ashrama (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 74)

2. Sri Rama visiting Pampa Sarovar: Sri Rama visits Pampa Sarovar on whose bank was the Rishyamukha Parvata. Sri Rama breaks into rupture describing the beauty of the Pampa Sarovar along with the surrounding woodlands, and also his own anguish for being separated from Devi Sita. Sugreeva sees Rama and becomes filled with apprehensions (that they are agents of Vali) (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 75 to Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 1).

Event: Sri Rama describing the beauty of Pampa Sarovar (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 75 to Kishkindha Kanda - 1)
Nature: Trees of Pampa Sarovar (Valmiki Ramayana - Aranya Kanda - 75 to Kishkindha Kanda - 1)

3. Sri Rama meeting Hanuman: Seeing Sri Rama and Lakshmana, Sugreeva becomes apprehensive thinking that they are agents of Vali. He sends Hanuman (from Rishyamukha Parvata to Pampa Sarovar) in the guise of a commoner to assess their true intentions. Hanuman takes the form of an ascetic and meets Sri Rama and Lakshmana speaking heart-pleasing words. When Sri Rama and Lakshmana are silent, Hanuman reveals his true identity as the minister of Sugreeva and said that Sugreeva wants friendship with them. Sri Rama praises the knowledge and speech of Hanuman. Lakshmana tells Hanuman about their identity and accepts the proposal of friendship. Hanuman carries Sri Rama and Lakshmana on his shoulders to Rishyamukha Parvata where Sugreeva was residing (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 2 to 4).



11. Rishyamukha Parvata and Kishkindha outskirts:

Sri Rama meeting Sugreeva Sugreeva and Vali fighting Sri Rama slaying Vali Sri Rama giving ring to Hanuman Hanuman crossing the ocean Hanuman meeting Devi Sita Sri Rama embracing Hanuman 1. Sri Rama making friendship with Sugreeva: Hanuman tells Sugreeva about Sri Rama and suggests him to make friendship with Rama. Sugreeva extends his hand of friendship. Sri Rama accepts it and embraces Sugreeva. Hanuman lit a ritual fire and firmly establishes the oath of friendship. Sugreeva tells Sri Rama about his hapless condition due to Vali. Sri Rama assures Sugreeva that he will eliminate Vali (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 5).

2. Sugreeva showing the jewellery of Devi Sita: Sugreeva in-turn assures Sri Rama and vows to bring back Devi Sita. He says that Devi Sita dropped her jewellery seeing him with a group of vanaras (while she was passing over the Rishyamukha Parvata). Sugreeva shows those jewellery to Sri Rama to identify them. Seeing the jewellery of Devi Sita, Sri Rama was filled with emotion. Sugreeva consoles Sri Rama. Sri Rama steadies himself and asks Sugreeva to tell how he can help him (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 6 to 7).

3. Sri Rama hearing the story of Sugreeva: Sri Rama asks Sugreeva to tell the cause of his enmity with Vali. Sugreeva tells his story to Sri Rama. Sugreeva tells about demon Mayavi who challenges Vali and then out of fear enters a cave. Sugreeva stays guard for one year, and then seeing blood coming out, closes the cave with a huge boulder and returns to the kingdom. Sugreeva becomes the king. Vali returns and banishes Sugreeva and also takes his wife. Sri Rama assures Sugreeva. (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 8 to 10).

4. Sri Rama hearing about the strength of Vali: Sugreeva narrates the strength of Vali by describing how he slayed the enormous buffalo-demon Dundubhi. Sugreeva also narrates the curse of sage Matanga due to which Vali cannot enter the Rishyamukha Parvata where Sugreeva is staying (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 11).

5. Sri Rama displaying his strength to assure Sugreeva: Sugreeva becomes doubtful how Sri Rama can match Vali in strength. He wants to see the strength of Sri Rama (by kicking the skeleton of demon Dundubhi and perforating a Sala tree with a single arrow). Sri Rama flings the skeleton of Dundubhi with his foot ten yojanas away. Then with a single arrow he perforates seven Sala trees together. The arrow enters the earth after passing through a mountain and then coming out of the earth returns to his quiver. Sugreeva in astonishment bows to Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 11 to 12).

6. Sri Rama making Sugreeva fight with Vali (first duel): Sri Rama tells Sugreeva to invite Vali for a duel. They all go to Kishkindha. Sugreeva invites Vali for a duel but Sri Rama could not differentiate between Vali and Sugreeva since they are very similar in appearance. So he did not release his arrow. Vali defeats Sugreeva and chases him away in the Rishyamukha Parvata. Sri Rama consoles Sugreeva and removes his misunderstanding. To put a mark of differentiation on Sugreeva, he then adorns him with a flower garland of Gaja creeper. They again set forth for Kishkindha (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 12).

7. Sri Rama seeing the Saptajana ashrama: On the way to Kishkindha, Sri Rama sees the Saptajana ashrama where seven sages performed penance with their heads upside-down for seven hundred years and attained the heavenly realm. The ashrama shined with a divine aura. Sri Rama offered salutations to the sages with joined palms (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 13).

8. Sri Rama slaying Vali during the second duel of Sugreeva: Sri Rama assures Sugreeva about his promise and Sugreeva again challenges Vali for a duel. Tara informs Vali about Sri Rama and advises him to befriend Sugreeva. Vali ignores her advice and rushes out to fight with Sugreeva. During the fight Vali overpowers Sugreeva and Sugreeva helplessly searches for Sri Rama. Sri Rama stretches his bow and brings down Vali with a single arrow. Vali accuses Sri Rama for killing him from a hiding without directly challenging him in a combat. Sri Rama answers Vali giving the reasons for his act of killing for upholding Dharma. Sri Rama points out the sin of Vali of misbehaving with Sugreeva's wife Ruma who should have been treated as a daughter-in-law. Sri Rama says that it is very difficult to understand the subtle nuances of Dharma followed by a righteous person. Hearing the words of Sri Rama, Vali realises his sins and becomes repentant. He asks for forgiveness from Sri Rama and requests him to give refuge to his son Angada and wife Tara. Sri Rama assures him and tells him to be free of remorse, because the punishment has brought an end to his sins. Tara comes there and wails, followed by Angada and other wives of Vali. Tara decides to self-immolate herself. Hanuman tries to console her saying Anagada will be anointed as the king, but Tara prefers self-immolation along with her husband. Vali gives his pendant to Sugreeva and tells him to take care of Angada and fulfill the mission of Sri Rama. Vali also tells Sugreeva to listen to the advice of Tara who is of clear judgement. Vali passes away. Tara laments again. Sugreeva becomes repentant for the sin of killing his own brother and decides to enter the fire. Tara requests Sri Rama to kill her with the same arrow so that she can reach the higher abode with her husband. Sri Rama consoles Tara, then orders Sugreeva to perform the funeral ceremony of Vali befitting a king. Sugreeva takes control of the situation and arranges for the funeral ceremony (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 14 to 25).

9. Sri Rama instructing to anoint Sugreeva as king and Angada as crown-prince: On the instruction of Sri Rama the vanaras enter the cave city of Kishkindha and anoints Sugreeva as king and Angada as crown-prince. Sri Rama himself does not attend the ceremony as he is not supposed to enter towns and cities during his forest exile (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 26).



12. Mount Prasavana (Kishkindha outskirts):

Sri Rama 1. Sri Rama staying at Mount Prasavana: Sri Rama stays at Mount Prasavana in a spacious cave during the four months of the rainy season. He describes the beauty of the mountain, river and forest, but sometimes falls into despondency due to the lack of Devi Sita. Lakshmana advices Sri Rama to shed his despondency and wait with a cheerful mind for the autumn month to arrive (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 27)

2. Sri Rama describing the beauty of the Rainy season: Staying at Mount Prasavana, Sri Rama describes the beauty of the Rainy season (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 28)

3. Hanuman meeting Sugreeva: Hanuman meets Sugreeva and advises him to prepare for the search of Devi Sita. Upon getting enthroned as king, Sugreeva starts overindulging in pleasures forgetting the mission of Sri Rama. Hearing the words of Hanuman, Sugreeva orders Nila to gather the vanaras within fifteen days. However, after issuing the orders Sugreeva again enters the palace chambers for indulging in pleasures (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 29)

4. Sri Rama sending Lakshmana to Sugreeva during Autumn: Autumn season arrives. Sri Rama praises the Autumn season but is filled with grief for the loss of Devi Sita and also anger for not seeing any initiative from Sugreeva. He sends Lakshmana to Sugreeva to suitably remind and warn him for ignoring his promise. Lakshmana goes to Kishkindha assuming an appearance of great fury. Sugreeva initially could not understand the situation because he was ebriated and in a pleasure-seeking mood. The ministers bring him to senses. Hanuman explains him the cause of anger of Lakshmana. Sugreeva sends Tara to appease Lakshmana. Tara, after pacifying Lakshmana, invites him inside. Sugreeva asks for forgiveness. Lakshmana was pacified and asks Sugreeva to come with him and meet Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 30 to 36)

5. Sugreeva ordering to gather all the vanaras: Sugreeva orders Hanuman to gather all the vanaras from different mountains like Mahendra, Himalaya, Vindhya, Kailash, Mandara, Anjana and Meru; and also from other places. The vanaras start assembling there when Lakshmana was still with him. Some vanaras brought divine fruits and flowers from Himalayas as gifts to Sugreeva (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 37)

6. Sugreeva going to Sri Rama: Sugreeva then goes to Sri Rama with Lakshmana. Sri Rama tells Sugreeva that a king should divide his time in the practice of Dharma, Artha and Kama (Righteousness, Prosperity and Pleasure) and not engross himself in Kama alone. Sugreeva informs Sri Rama that the vanaras are assembling there from all directions. Sri Rama becomes glad. In the meantime several vanara chiefs started gathering there along with their armies. They are Shatabali, the father of Tara (Sushena), the father of Ruma, Kesari the father of Hanuman, Gavaksha, Dhumra, Panasa, Nila, Gavaya, Darimukha, Mainda, Dwivida, Gaja, Risharaja Jambavanta, Rumana, Gandhamadana, Angada, Tara, Indrajanu, Rambha, Durmukha, Hanuman, Nala, Dadhimukha, Sharabha, Kumuda, Vahani and others (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 38 to 39)

7. Sugreeva ordering eastern search: Then with the permission of Sri Rama Sugreeva sends vanaras under the leadership of Vinata for the eastern search. He asks them to search:
- River-sides of Bhagarathi, Sarayu, Kaushiki, Yamuna, Saraswati, Sindhu, Shona, Mahi and Kalamahi
- Provinces of Brahmamala, Videha, Malava, Kashi, Koshala, Magadha, Pundra, Anga and Koshakara
- Mount Mandara where some horrible-looking creatures stay
- Yava island and the Shishira mountain
- Cross various oceans and islands and come to Lohita ocean having a huge Kuta-Shalmali tree
- Island surrounded by the Kshira ocean; the island having the white mountain Rishabha and lake Sudarshana
- Island surrounded by the sweet-water ocean, where there is a fire in the form of a horse-mouth created by the anger of sage Aurasa; and a golden mountain called Jatarupa on the top of which the thousand-hooded Ananta is bearing the Earth
- Udaya mountain with Shala, Tala, Tamala and Karnikara trees and having a peak named Saumanasa, where the Trivikrama Avatara placed his first foot (and his second foot at mount Meru). There abides the sages Vaikhanasa and Valakhilyas. That is the Sudarshana island. The Udaya mountain is the eastern-most limit of search and is the gateway from Earth to Heaven from where the Sun rises.
Sugreeva allots a month's time for the eastern search (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 40)

8. Sugreeva ordering southern search: Then Sugreeva sends vanaras under the leadership of Angada for the southern search. He asks them to search:
- The Vindhya mountains
- River banks of Narmada, Godavari, Krishnaveni, Mahanadi and Varada
- Provinces of Mekhala, Utkala, Dasharna, Avanti, Vidharbha and Mahisha
- Provinces of Vanga, Kalinga and Kaushika
- Dandaka forest and provinces of Andhra, Pundra, Chola, Pandhya and Kerala
- Mount Malaya, river Kaveri and river Tamrapani
- Southern ocean and mount Mahendra, and then the island where Ravana stays
- Mountains Pushpitaka beyond the island, and then mountain Suryavan, mountain Vaidyuta, mountain Kunjara (with abode of sage Agastya), city Bhogavati (abode of snakes) and mountain Rishabha
- Beyond mountain Rishabha is the terminus of the Earth and the abode of Yama (which is not to be searched)
Sugreeva allots a month's time for the southern search (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 41)

9. Sugreeva ordering western search: Then Sugreeva sends vanaras under the leadership of Sushena (father of Tara and son of sage Mareecha) for the western search. He asks them to search:
- The provinces of Saurashtra, Bahlika, Chandrachitra
- Western Ocean seashore having cities like Muraci, Jatapura, Avanti, Angalepa and forest of Alakshita
- Mountain Hemagiri on the confluence of river Sindhu and the Ocean
- Mountain Pariyatra within the Ocean
- Mountain Vajra within the Ocean
- Mountain Chakravana within the Ocean
- Mountain Varaha within the Ocean with the city Pragjyotisha
- Mountain Meghavanta
- A range of sixty-thousand mountains having Mount Meru
- Mountain Ashtagiri
Sugreeva allots a month's time for the southern search (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 42)

10. Sugreeva ordering northern search: Then Sugreeva sends vanaras under the leadership of Shatabali for the northern search. He asks them to search:
- The provinces of Mleccha, Pulinda, Surashena, Prasthala, Bharata, Kuru, Madraka, Kambhoja, Yavana and Darada
- The Himalayan region
- Hermitage of Soma and mountain Kala
- Mountain Sudarshana
- Mountain Devashakha
- Mount Kailasha after crossing a vacant stretch of land and the lake there
- Mount Krauncha
- Mount Kama and Mount Manasa
- Mount Mainaka
- Hermitages of Siddhas, Vaikhanasas and Valakhilyas
- River Shailoda
- Uttara Kuru
- Northern Ocean and Mount Soma within it (where the Trinity resides)
(Sugreeva allots a month's time for the northern search) (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 43)

11. Sri Rama giving his ring to Hanuman: Sri Rama gives his ring to Hanuman (to enable Hanuman to identify himself as the messenger of Sri Rama when he meets Devi Sita) (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 44)

12. The vanaras starting their search: The vanaras after receiving the orders of Sugreeva starts their search for Devi Sita filled with enthusiasm. Sri Rama stays on at mount Prasavana waiting for their return (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 45)

13. Sri Rama enquiring Sugreeva about his knowledge of the Earth: Sri Rama enquires Sugreeva how he attained the knowledge of the whole geography of the Earth. Sugreeva replies that when he was chased by Vali he fled in all the directions and therefore had intimate knowledge of the Earth (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 46)

14. Vanara chiefs returning from East, North and West: The vanara chiefs return from East, North and West within a month and informs Sugreeva that Devi Sita was not found in those directions. They hopefully waits for Hanuman since Hanuman went in the direction where Devi Sita was taken during abduction (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 47)



13. The search of Hanuman (Vindhya region, Southern sea and Lanka):

Bhakta Hanuman 1. Hanuman searching the Vindhya region: Hanuman with the troops of vanaras under the leadership of Anga searches the caves and forests of the Vindhya region. The search included several forests including the forest which became uninhabitable due to the curse of sage Kandu. Angada kills a demon thinking him to be Ravana. However, not finding Devi Sita, the vanaras become crestfallen. Angada encourages the vanaras and they again search the Vindhya region. Finally, not finding Devi Sita they descend to the plains (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 48 to 49)

2. Hanuman entering Riksha cavity and meeting Swayamprabha: The time allotted by Sugreeva passes in searching the Vindhya region and Devi Sita was still not found. Filled with hunger and thirst, one day the vanaras come to the entrance of Riksha cavity. They see trees inside and waterfowls exiting with body drenched in water. Even though apprehensive, the vanaras enter the cavity on the advice of Hanuman. After passing through darkness, they come to a place of light which was filled with golden trees, lakes and mansions. There they see a saintly lady. Hanuman enquires the lady about the cave. The saintly lady introduces herself as Shyamprabha, the daughter of Merusavarni. She says that the cave was created by demon Maya. However Indra kills Maya when he was engaged in affairs with an apsara named Hema. Brahma bestows that cave to Hema and she was safeguarding that place for her friend Hema. Shyamprabha extends her hospitality to the vanaras and asks about their purpose. Hanuman tells their purpose and requests her to help them to exit the cavity. Since exiting the cavity alive is not possible, Shyamprabha uses her ascetic power and transports the vanaras to the southern shore near mount Prasavana (in Vindhya mountain range) (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 50 to 52)

3. Angada proposing fast-unto-death: Seeing the unending seashore and that the time allotted by Sugreeva for the search has elapsed, Angada proposes fast-unto-death, because upon returning without any news of Devi Sita, Sugreeva is sure to punish them. Vanara Tara proposes that they return to Riksha cavity and spend their lives there. Other vanaras also proposes to find a solution whereby they can live (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 53)

4. Hanuman proposing returning to Sugreeva: Hanuman explains that defecting from Sugreeva amd living in Riksha cave is not a good idea. Firstly, arrows of Rama and Lakshmana can reach there. Secondly, the vanaras will not live long separated from their families and will finally desert him. Thirdly, it does not befit a brave like him to live inside a hideout. Hanuman proposes that they return to Sugreeva who will not punish them understanding their situation (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 54)

5. Angada deciding to fast-unto-death: Angada says that Sugreeva is not to be believed since he has done many misdeeds in the past. He blocked the entrance of the cave hole when his father was fighting demon Dundibhi. He took away his mother Tara. He killed his father through Rama. He even forgot the help of Rama and is only searching for Devi Sita out of fear of Lakshmana. Therefore he is not going to return to Sugreeva. Saying this Angada lies on the Darbha grass on the seashore for fast-unto-death. Other vanaras also follow him (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 55)

6. Vanaras meeting Sampati: Sampati, the brother of Jatayu (who abides on that mountain-top), listens to the vanaras glorifying the sacrifice of Jatayu. He requests the vanaras to bring him down from the mountain-top so that he can listen more about Jatayu. The vanaras bring him down and Angada narrates their plight to him. Sampati tells his story of how his wings got burnt when he and brother Jatayu once playfully tried to reach the Sun and he trying to protect Jatayu with his wings. Sampati offers water oblations for his brother and then narrates that he has seen Devi Sita while she was being abducted by Ravana and tells about Lanka where Devi Sita is lodged. The vanaras become instilled with a new hope. Sampati also tells how his son Suparshva saw Ravana and Devi Sita in the sky. Sampati tells about sage Nishakara who predicted that he will get back his wings when he gives the information of Devi Sita to the vanaras who will come there (while searching for Devi Sita). Sage Nishakara also gives temporary small wings to Sampati for survival till that time. After Sampati performs the service of Rama by giving the information of Devi Sita to the vanaras, he regains his new wings and vitality and flies off joyfully. The vanaras proceed towards the southern diection with new hope (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 56 to 63)

7. Vanaras assembling at the sea shore: The vanaras then come to the sea shore and camp there. But seeing the endless ocean they fall in despair thinking how to cross the ocean. Angada encourages them and asks the vanaras who among them can cross the ocean of hundred yojanas and accomplish their task. No one comes forward. Angada then tries to assess the capability of the vanaras separately. Each vanara tells about his capability which falls short of hundred yojanas. Jambavanta then proceeds to motivate Hanuman who was sitting comfortably in a lonely place (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 64 to 65)

8. Jambavanta motivating Hanuman: Jambavanta then motivates Hanuman. Jambavanta compares his strength to Garuda. Jambavanta tells the story of the birth of Hanuman. Anjana, an apsara had to take birth on the earth as a vanara due to a curse. Once the Air-god Pavana was attracted by her beauty and through him Anjana bore the great son Hanuman. Once during childhood Hanuman tried to eat the Sun thinking it to be a fruit (and flown three hundred yojanas towards it). Indra became angry and hit him with a thunderbolt. Since his left Hanu (cheekbone) was broken he was known as Hanuman. The Air-god became angry and stopped circulating in the three worlds. The gods supplicated the Air-god. Brahma gave a boon that Hanuman will not be destroyed by any weapon. Indra then gave the boon that death will occur to him only by his will. Narrating this story Jambavanta urges Hanuman to save the vanaras from this predicament by showing his prowess. Hanuman rises and assumes his huge form (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 66)

9. Hanuman asserting his capabilities: Motivated by Jambavanta, Hanuman then asserts his capabilities. He says that he can shake the mountains and splash the waters of the ocean. He can fly over thousand yojanas at a stretch. Hanuman increases the size of his body and goes to the top of mount Mahendra to take a leap. The vanaras were awed and over-joyed, and as if new life has been instilled in their bodies. Jambavanta compares the mission of Hanuman to the sadhana of Rishis, and the vanaras will be waiting on the other side of the sea shore in yogic postures for Hanuman to return (Valmiki Ramayana - Kishkindha Kanda - 67)

10. Hanuman taking a leap over the ocean: Hanuman increases the size of his body and gets ready to take a leap over the ocean. He salutes the Sun-God, Air-God, Indra and other devas. When he presses his feet on the mountain to take his leap, the Mahendra mountain was agitated. It shed the flowers of its trees and the animals and demi-gods starts leaving their places. The ascetics from the sky declares the mission of Hanuman (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 1)

11. Mountain Mainaka rising up: Samudra deva thinks that the oceans were created by Sagara of Sri Rama's dynasty. Therefore he needs to help Hanuman who is on the mission of Sri Rama. Samudra deva tells mount Mainaka to rise up to give rest to Hanuman. The Mainaka rises up and greets Hanuman. He says that apart from the Ocean god's request, he himself is also indebted to Vayu deva who saved his wings when Indra tried to cut them. Mainaka requests Hanuman to take rest on his peaks. Hanuman touches the mountain with his hands but did not stop over to take rest neglecting his duties. Hanuman rises up still higher and crosses over the Mainaka mountain (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 1)

12. Surasa obstructing Hanuman: The Devas request Surasa, the mother of Nagas to assume the form of a demoness and obstruct the path of Hanuman to test him. Surasa assumes the huge form of a demoness and obstructs the path of Hanuman. She says that according to Lord Brahma's boon, no one can cross her without entering her mouth. Hanuman in anger increases the size of his body spanning several yojanas. However Surasa also opens her mouth and keeps increasing its size and obstructs the path of Hanuman. Hanuman then suddenly becomes small like a thumb, quickly enters the mouth of Surasa and comes out. Surasa assumes her normal form and blesses Hanuman (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 1)

13. Hanuman slaying demoness Simhika: Demoness Simhika captures the shadow of Hanuman to get him as food and stops his flight. Hanuman increases the size of his body. Simhika opens her mouth and also increases its size to devour Hanuman. Hanuman enters the mouth of Simhika and going inside rends her heart with his finger-nails. Simhika dies and falls inside the ocean. The creatures of the ocean thanks Hanuman (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 1)

14. Hanuman reaching Lanka: Hanuman reaches the island of Lanka in the region of the Malaya mountain and reducing his size alights on the top of mount Lamba (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 1)

15. Hanuman entering Lanka: Hanuman sees the city of Lanka located on the peak of Mount Trikuta, and protected by boundary wall. The city architected by Vishwakarma consisted of huge mansions which were richly decorated and also forests and lakes. The city was protected by rakshasas armed with various weapons. Seeing the highly protected and impenetrable city of Lanka, Hanuman was in despair for sometime thinking about the prospect of Sri Rama. To avoid being detected by rakshasas, Hanuman assumed a small form of the size of a cat and entered the city at night (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 2)

16. Hanuman encountering demoness Lanka: Demoness Lanka, the guardian protector of the city of Lanka, detects Hanuman and rises up. Hanuman tells her that he wants to see the city of Lanka. Lanka obstructs and hits Hanuman. Hanuman hits back and makes her fall. Lanka tells of a prediction of Lord Brahma that the day she will be defeated by a vanara who comes in search of Devi Sita, the end of rakshasas will come. Knowing that the time of that prediction has arrived, Lanka tells Hanuman to move freely and search for Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 3)

17. Hanuman searching Lanka and Ravana's palace: Hanuman enters the beautiful city of Lanka crossing over the boundary wall at night. He passes near various beautiful buildings. He hears various musical instruments and sounds of laughter. He hears ritual chanting of the Vedas and also rakshasas praising Ravana. He saw guards of Ravana carrying various weapons. Then Hanuman enters the city-palace of Ravana on the top of the hill with a protective compound wall and moat around it. Hanuman sees great opulence with elephants and horses, jewelleries and gems and filled with chantings and music. Hanuman moves through the mansions of Prahasta, Mahaparshva, Kumbhakarna, Vibhisana, Mahodara, Virupaksha, Vidyutjihva, Suka, Sarana, Indrajit, Jambumali, Sumali, Rashmiketu, Suryaketu, Vajrakaya, Dhumra, Sampati, Vidyutrupa, Bhima, Ghana, Vighana, Sukanabha, Vakra, Satha, Vikata, Hrashyakarna, Damstra, Roma, Yuddhanmatya, Dhwajagriva, Indrajihva, Hastimukha, Karala, Pishaca, Shonitaksha etc. Hanuman then enters the palace of Ravana. Hanuman sees various army divisions protecting the palace. Hanuman sees various bowers for pleasure which were richly decorated. Hanuman sees the beautiful Pushpaka Vimana stationed within the palace-premises of Ravana. Hanuman sees the various wives of Ravana who surrendered to Ravana by their own will (unlike Devi Sita who was brought forcefully). Hanuman enters the inner chamber of Ravana and sees Ravana sleeping. Hanuman sees various women sleeping hugging various musical instruments which they were playing during the night. Hanuman then sees Mandodari sleeping alone on one side. Seeing her graceful appearance Hanuman thinks temporarily that she was Devi Sita, but then rejects the thought because Devi Sita will not sleep in the palace-chamber of Ravana. Not finding Devi Sita, Hanuman becomes depessed but continues his search in all the other houses. Still not finding Devi Sita, Hanuman decides not to return without seeing her because it will cause great grief to others. Finally Hanuman salutes Sri Rama, Lakshmana and other Devas and enters the Ashoka Vana (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 4 to 13)

18. Hanuman searching the Ashoka Vana: Hanuman then enters the Ashoka Vana and becomes impressed by its beauty. It was decorated with various trees laden with fruits and flowers. It was decorated with ponds inlaid with gems and visited by various birds. Hanuman thinks that Devi Sita must be coming to these ponds which must be dear to her (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 14)

19. Hanuman seeing Devi Sita: Hanuman searches the Ashoka Vana and sees Devi Sita. She was emaciated for not taking food and full of grief. Her eyes were full of tears and she was helplessly looking here and there, surrounded by demonesses. From her beauty and grace (although covered with dust), Hanuman recognises her to be Devi Sita and becomes sad seeing her pitiable condition, but becomes happy at finding her at last. Hanuman sees Ravana entering the Ashoka garden followed by his wives during the early dawn. Ravana tries to entice Devi Sita with offers of jewellery, wealth. comfort and power. Devi Sita tells Ravana (holding a straw between them) to become friend of Rama and return her, and warns that he will be slain otherwise and Lanka will be destroyed. Ravana gives two months time to Devi Sita, either to surrender or get killed. He orders the demonesses to bring her under his control by any means. Getting orders from Ravana the demonesses starts frightening and pursuing Devi Sita to marry Ravana. Devi Sita sticks to her devotion to husband and cites examples of devotion of Sachi to Indra, Arundhati to Vasistha, Rohini to Chandra, Lopamudra to Agastya, Sukanya to Chyavana, Savitri to Satyavana, Srimati to Kapila, Madayanti to Saudasa, Keshini to Sagara and Damayanti to Nala. The demonesses display further anger and threatens to eat her that very moment. Devi Sita wails and decides to give up her life and also warns the demonesses that the city of Lanka will get destroyed (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 15 to 26)

20. Trijata telling her dream: When the demonesses of Ravana keeps on harassing Devi Sita, Trijata stops them and tells about her dream. She saw Rama and Sita wearing white clothes and garlands ascending the sky in a palanquin of swans. On the other hand she saw Ravana in red clothes with a confused mind sinking inside the ground. She saw indications of the destruction of Lanka and the demons except Vibhisana. Trijata tells the demonesses that Sita is not an ordinary woman, so she should not be tortured but entreated (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 27)

21. Devi Sita seeing good omens while trying to end her life: Devi Sita recollects the time limit and two months given by Ravana and thinks of herself as a prisoner sentenced to death. In grief she tries to end her life by hanging with the braid of her own hair. Then some good omens appear before her. Her left eye quivered. Her left shoulder and left thigh also quivered. Devi Sita becomes joyful (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 28 to 29)

22. Hanuman pondering about his course of action: Hanuman ponders about his course of action. He thinks that he should console Devi Sita, else she will give up her life. But while trying to console her the demonesses may see him and creating a great commotion will try to kill him. Also, after seeing him, Devi Sita may get frightened and start screaming, thinking him to be Ravana in guise. Thinking about various options, Hanuman decides that he will eulogise Rama which will not create any fear in Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 30)

23. Hanuman narrating the story of Rama: Hanuman, sitting on a Shimshapa tree, narrates the story of Rama. He eulogises Rama. He mentions how Devi Sita was kidnapped by Ravana. He mentions how Rama met Sugreeva and started searching for Devi Sita in all directions. Devi Sita hears the words of Hanuman and becomes filled with joy. She spots Hanuman on the Shimshapa tree (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 31)

24. Hanuman meeting Devi Sita: Seeing Hanuman perched on the Shimshapa tree, Devi Sita becomes surprised. She prays to Lord Brihaspati and others that the words of Hanuman become true. Hanuman comes down and humbly asks her whether she is Devi Sita. Devi Sita tells her story to Hanuman. Hanuman reveals himself as a messenger of Sri Rama. However Devi Sita starts suspecting Hanuman as Ravana in disguise. Hanuman dispels her suspicion by narrrating the glories of Sri Rama and the entire story of how he met Rama. Hanuman, further shows the ring of Rama to Devi Sita and tells her that Rama will soon come here with a huge army of vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 32 to 36)

25. Hanuman proposing to take Devi Sita. Sita declining: Hanuman proposes to Devi Sita to carry her on his back to Rama at that very moment. Devi Sita declines citing various reasons. Firstly, the demons will follow Hanuman and engage him in a battle in the sky. She will then fall down from his back and taken away by the demons who will hide her in a very secret place. Secondly, she cannot touch any other man apart from Rama, wilfully. Devi Sita instead asks Hanuman to bring Rama to Lanka within two months, the time alloted by Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 37)

26. Hanuman asking for a token of remembrance: Hanuman then asks Devi Sita to give him a token of remembrance. Devi Sita tells him the secret story of a crow, the son of Indra, who pecked her in the forest. Rama, out of fury created a Brahma Astra out of a blade of grass and discharged it towards the crow. The crow flied around the three worlds but could not get shelter. Finally he took refuge of Sri Rama. Rama saved his life but the Brahma Astra destroyed his right eye. Devi Sita further gives Hanuman her Chudamani (head-jewel) as a token of remembrance. Devi Sita expresses her doubt about how Rama and Lakshmana will cross the ocean and come to Lanka. Hanuman consoles her citing that the army of Sugreeva has many valiant vanaras who will accomplish the task. As another token of remembrance Devi Sita also tells the secret story that once when a Tilaka mark was effaced from her forehead, Rama created another mark on her cheek. Hanuman leaves Devi Sita and goes towards the northern direction (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 38 to 40)

27. Hanuman destroying the Ashoka Vana: Hanuman decides to return to Sugreeva only after assessing the strength of the enemy. He decides to know more about Ravana and his armies. To get the attention of Ravana, Hanuman starts destroying the garden of Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 41)

28. Hanuman slaying the Kinkaras: The demonesses guarding Devi Sita asks her about Hanuman. Devi Sita feigns ignorance. They then report the incident of the destruction of Ashoka vana to Ravana. Becoming angry, Ravana sends eight thousand Kinkaras. Hanuman assuming a huge form kills them with an iron rod. (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 42)

29. Hanuman destroying the sanctuary of the demons: After killing the Kinkaras, Hanuman destroys the sacred sanctuary of the demons assuming a gigantic form. He kills the guards with an iron pillar who comes to fight with him (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 43)

30. Hanuman slaying Jambumali: Ravana then sends Jambumali, the son of Prahasta. Jambumali strikes Hanuman with several arrows. Hanuman throws a huge rock towards Jambumali which he crushes with his arrows. Hanuman then uproots a large Sal tree and throws towards Jambumali. The demon splits that too with his arrows. Hanuman finally destroys Jambumali throwing a huge iron rod (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 44)

31. Hanuman slaying the seven sons of minister: Ravana then sends the seven sons of his chief minister to capture Hanuman. They come with a huge army and fills the sky with their arrows. Hanuman makes their arrows useless and using only his palms, fist, nails and thighs kills them (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 45)

32. Hanuman slaying the five army generals: Ravana then sends five army generals - Virupaksa, Yupaksha, Durdhara, Praghasa and Vasakarna. Ravana tells that Hanuman may not be an ordinary vanara but an evil spirit created by Indra. Durdhara discharges arrows at Hanuman. Hanuman assuming a gigantic form, falls on his chariot while fighting in the air and kills him. Hanuman kills Virupaksha and Yupaksha by uprooting a Sala tree and striking them with it. When Praghasa and Vasakarna wounded Hanuman with their weapons, Hanuman removes a part of the mountain and kills them with it. Hanuman then destroys the remaining army of the demons and again stations himself for fight (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 46)

33. Hanuman slaying Aksha: Ravana then sends Aksha, his own son to fight with Hanuman. Aksha was endowed with the power of penance and had a chariot which moved in the sky. He was composed in mind and had great prowess. A great fight ensues between Hanuman and Aksha. Hanuman mentally praises Aksha for his composed attitude and prowess, but decides to kill him to accomplish his purpose. He therefore destroys his chariot in the sky with his hands. Aksha tries to depart to heaven by the power of his penance. Hanuman catches him and spinning him, kills him by thrashing on the ground (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 47)

34. Hanuman encountering Indrajit: Ravana then sends his son Indrajit who was foremost in warefare and the use of missiles, and also endowed with penance. A great battle ensues between Hanuman and Indrajit. The two could not find weaknesses of each other. Hanuman avoids all the arrows discharged by Indrajit with the speed of wind. Indrajit understands that Hanuman cannot be defeated by normal weapons. He therefore discharges the Brahma Astra. Hanuman surrenders to the Astra of Brahma (to meet Ravana), gets tied by it and falls down motionless. The demons tie Hanuman with bark of trees and drags him to Ravana. Since Hanuman is tied by other means, the Brahma Astra gets released. Hanuman meets Ravana. Enquired by the ministers, he tells that he is the envoy of Sugreeva (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 48)

35. Hanuman meeting Ravana: Hanuman meets Ravana after being dragged to his court by the demons. He was surprised to see the splendour of Ravana with ten heads and many arms, with well-adorned figure and great opulence. He thinks what strength, courage, splendour and auspicious marks this demon has, but all being turned in the path of unrighteousness. Ravana was attended by ministers Durdhara, Prahasta, Mahaparshva and Nikumba. Hanuman observes Ravana attentively. Ravana enquires through his minister who he was and what was his motive in destroying the pleasure garden. Hanuman says that he destroyed the garden to meet Ravana and he attacked the demons only to protect himself. Hanuman also says that he is incapable of being bound by any missile by the boon of Lord Brahma and he only surrendered to the missile to see Ravana. Hanuman finally says that he is the messenger of Rama of unlimited splendour. He tells the story of Rama and warns Ravana that Rama will destroy him if Devi Sita is not restored. So it is in his interest and interest of his subjects to tread the righteous path and release Devi Sita. Ravana in anger orders the killing of Hanuman. Vibhisana advises Ravana from desisting to kill a messenger which is against scriptural injunctions. He says that the messenger is only communicating the words of the master and if he is killed no one will be able to cross the ocean and communicate back. On the other hand, Ravana needs to punish the two princes who sent Hanuman (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 49 to 52)

35. Ravana ordering to set fire on the tail of Hanuman: Hearing the words of Vibhisana, Ravana orders to burn the tail of Hanuman which is a thing of pride for the vanaras. He orders that Hanuman to be marched on the roads with his burnt tail. As ordered, the demons tie cloth rugs on the tail of Hanuman and sets fire on it. Hanuman decides to bear with the punishment to see Lanka again during the day time. The demons drag Hanuman through the roads of Lanka sounding kettle-drums. The demonesses guarding Devi Sita informed her about the burning of Hanuman's tail. Devi Sita prays to the Fire God to become cool to Hanuman. Listening to the prayers of Devi Sita, the fire becomes cool to Hanuman. Hanuman was also surpised that the fire was not burning him and decided that it must be due to Devi Sita and Rama. Then reaching the city gate, Hanuman kills the security guards with iron rods. (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 53)

36. Hanuman setting fire to Lanka: Hanuman then ponders over his mission and decides to set fire to Lanka. He jumps from house to house and sets them on fire. He however, spares the house of Vibhisana. The wind swiftly scatters the fire engulfing the whole of Lanka. The demons start running helter-skelter to save their lives and thinks of Hanuman as the fire of destruction. The celestials eulogise Hanuman (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 54)

37. Hanuman visiting Devi Sita again: Hanuman repents that by his rashful action he has also burnt Devi Sita. He thinks of giving up his life. Then he sees may good omens and hears the words of celestials that Devi Sita is not burnt. Hanuman thinks that the fire was cool on him only due to the purity of Rama and Sita, so she cannot be burnt. He again visits Devi Sita and consoles her. Then Hanuman ascends mount Arishta and leaps over the ocean (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 55 to 56)

38. Hanuman returning to mount Mahendra: Flying over the ocean Hanuman touches mount Mainaka and before reaching mount Mahendra gives out a big roar. From his roar of joy, Jambavan tells the other vanaras that Hanuman was successful in his mission. Hanuman then gets down on mount Mahendra and salutes Jambavan and Angada. He tells them that he has seen Devi Sita, emaciated due to the devotion to her husband. The vanaras were thrilled with joy. Asked by Jambavan, Hanuman narrates the entire story of his mission in Lanka in details. He describes the pitiable condition of Devi Sita and says that he himself is sufficient to destroy Lanka and Ravana, what to say when accompanied by other valourous vanaras. Angada suggests that they themselves attack Lanka and take back Devi Sita. However, Jambavan says that they should only follow what Sri Rama decides after hearing their story (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 57 to 60)

39. Vanaras enjoying at Madhuvana: The vanaras then go to Madhuvana, a garden filled with honey and start enjoying themselves after drinking the honey. The Madhuvana garden was dear to Sugreeva and was protected by his maternal uncle Dadhimukha. When the guards of Dadhimukha tries to protect the garden from the vanaras they injure him with nails and fists. When Dadhimukha comes to protect the garden, Angada subdues him. Dadhimukha decides to report to Sugreeva (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 61 to 62)

40. Dadhimukha reporting to Sugreeva: Dadhimukha reports the exploits of the vanaras to Sugreeva. Sugreeva tells Sri Rama and Lakshmana that the vanaras must have accomplished their task and therefore enjoying the honey in Madhuvana. Sugreeva delightfully pardons the vanaras and asks Dadhimukha to send the vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 63)

41. Hanuman reporting about Devi Sita to Sri Rama: Dadhimukha goes to Madhuvana and salutes the vanaras and tells that Sugreeva wants to see them. The vanaras return to Sugreeva with Angada as the leader. Hanuman informs that Devi Sita was seen, bringing delight to all. Being urged by Sri Rama, Hanuman then describes about how Devi Sita is held captive in the Ashoka garden, her steadfast devotion towards Sri Rama and about the token of remembrance she gave him. Hanuman also informed about Devi Sita giving the time limit of a month for survival. Rama burst into tears seeing the chudamani sent by Devi Sita and says that it is like obtaining the vision of Sita herself. Rama urges Hanuman to repeat the words of Devi Sita so that he can survive by hearing her words. Hanuman tells the incident of the crow (who was son of Indra) at Chitrakoota which pecked Devi Sita and due to which Sri Rama send a Brahma astra made out of Kusha grass. Hanuman also tells Sri Rama about the doubt expressed by Devi Sita as to how they will cross the ocean and his reply consoling her (Valmiki Ramayana - Sundara Kanda - 64 to 68)

42. Sri Rama embracing Hanuman: Sri Rama becomes glad to hear the words of Hanuman and says that there is none other than Garuda, Wind-god and Hanuman who can cross the mighty ocean; and then after entering the kingdom of Lanka which is guarded by demons return alive; and further attack the kingdom itelf and return alive. Sri Rama then embraces Hanuman saying that a great service has been done by Hanuman and he can only embrace Hanuman now as a befitting act of gratitude (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 1)

43. Sri Rama pondering over his next step: Sri Rama then ponders in despair as to how to cross the mighty ocean with all the vanaras. Sugreeva encourages Sri Rama telling him to abandon grief and think of ways to build a bridge across the ocean. Once a bridge is built and the army of vanaras are able to cross the ocean to Lanka, victory is certain. Sri Rama then exudes confidence that by his austerities, building a bridge or drying up the ocean he will be able to cross the ocean. He then asks Hanuman to describe the defences of Lanka. Hanuman describes Lanka with its four gates, surrounded by moats and guarded by demon armies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 1 to 3)


14. March of vanara troops towards the ocean (Kishkindha, Sahya mountain, Mahendra mountain):

Sri Rama 1. Sri Rama starting with vanara armies: Sri Rama asks Sugreeva to order the vanara troops to march towards Lanka on that day itself when Uttara Phalguni was in conjunction with Hasta nakshatra. Sri Rama sees many good omens and deduces that he will win the battle. He asks Nila to go ahead and explore the way for the vanaras to go through the forest route where fruits abound. He asks Gaja, Gavaya and Gajaksha to lead the way in front. He asks Rishabha to guard the right side of the army .He asks Gandhamadana to guard the left side of the army. Sri Rama decides to march on the shoulders of Hanuman and Lakshmana on the shoulders of Angada in the middle. He asks Jambavan, Sushena and Vegadarshi to guard the middle of the army. Sugreeva orders the vanaras to march accordingly (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 4)

2. Sri Rama reaching Sahya mountain: Sri Rama reaches the Sahya mountain with the vanara troops. That mountain was rich in lakes and flower ponds. Lakshmana mentions many good omens which he had seen from stars and Nature in general. The Sahya and Malaya mountains abounded in forest with various trees (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 4)

3. Sri Rama reaching Mahendra mountain: Sri Rama reaches the Mahendra mountain with the vanara troops (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 4)



15. Southern Sea (Indian side):

Sri Rama making the Ocean-god appear and subsequently building bridge to Lanka Sri Rama building bridge to Lanka 1. Sri Rama reaching the southern sea shore: Sri Rama reaches the southern sea shore and asks Sugreeva to order the vanaras to camp there and think of ways to cross the ocean. Sri Rama also cautions the army to be on guard. There was an incessant dance of waves and the ocean and sky blended with each other. (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 4)

2. Sri Rama lamenting for Devi Sita: Sri Rama laments for Devi Sita. Lakshmana consoles him (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 5)

3. Ravana consulting the ministers: Ravana consults the council of ministers about their suggestions. He says that Sri Rama is coming with the vanara armies and he will cross the ocean by any means. The ministers eulogise Ravana mentioning many of his battle exploits and says that Indrajit alone is sufficient to defeat Rama. Many demons like Prahasta, Durmukha, Vajradamstra, Nikumbha, Vajrahanu, Suryaketu, Agniketu, Indrajit etc. displayed their anger and said that they alone with kill Rama, Lakshmana and Sugreeva along with their armies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 6 to 9)

4. Vibhisana proposing Devi Sita to be given away: Vibhisana proposes not to take up enmity with Sri Rama who is on the righteous path and exceedingly strong, and instead give away Devi Sita. Vibhisana warns that the lives of the demons will otherwise be in danger. Ravana leaves the hall and enters his palace. In the dawn Vibhisana enters the palace of Ravana and again speaks words of counsel. He says that bad omens are being seen. The sacrificial fire is not burning well inspite of mantras. Serpents are seen near sacrificial posts. Ants are seen in the oblations to be offered. The milk of cows are getting curdled. Horses, elephants, donkeys, camels and mules are feeling misery. Cocks are making cruel sounds. Vultures are flying in the sky. Jackals are crying inauspiciously. Hence Devi Sita is to be restored. Ravana becomes enraged and sends away Vibhisana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 9 to 10)

5. Ravana summoning an assembly: Ravana goes to the assembly hall and summons the demons. Ravana asks Prahasta to guard Lanka well. Then he says that he is infatuated with Devi Sita. Ravana asks for suggestions so that Devi Sita need not be handed back and Rama and Lakshmana can be killed. Kumbhakarna says that Ravana should have consulated them before abducting Devi Sita. However, he will neutralise the dishonourable act of Ravana by killing the enemies. Mahaparshva suggests that Ravana enjoy Devi Sita forcibly and that they will defend Lanka from enemies. Ravana tells of a curse on him by Lord Brahma due to his enjoying a celestial nymph called Punjikasthala. Lord Brahma cursed him that his head will break into hundred pieces if he enjoys any woman forcibly. Ravana then boasts of his own strength saying that Rama does not know about his prowess. Vibhisana compares Devi Sita with a serpent who is engulfing Ravana and says that there is no one who can withstand the arrows of Sri Rama. Therefore he asks the ministers to free the king from the serpent (in the form of Devi Sita) for the good of the demons. Indrajit calls Vibhisana a coward and says that he who has earlier conquered Indra in battle; how can he not face two men in battle? Vibhisana calls Indrajit as one with immature mind and reinforces that no one can withstand the arrows of Sri Rama. Ravana abuses Vibhisana saying that he is more afraid of a kinsman like Vibhisana who speaks for the enemy than the enemy itself. If anyone else had said so, his life would have ended there itself. Vibhisana becomes angry and departs Lanka with four demons (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 11 to 16)

6. Vibhisana leaving Ravana and coming to Rama: Hearing the words of Ravana, Vibhisana becomes angry and departs Lanka with four demons as companions. He comes to the place where Sri Rama was camping and halts in the sky itself. Sugreeva sees him with suspicion. He tells Sugreeva about the evil intentions of Ravana and asks him to inform Sri Rama that he has come to take refuge in him. Sugreeva informs Sri Rama about Vibhisana and also expresses his apprehension that he has come for spying. Sri Rama asks other vanaras about their opinion. The other vanaras also express their apprehensions and says that Vibhisana should be allowed only after due investigation. Only Hanuman suggests that there is no ill-intention of Vibhisana because he is fearless and his face is expressing his honesty. Hanuman says that Vibhisana has come seeing the demerits of Ravana and merits of Sri Rama. He also wants to be the king hearing how Sri Rama made Sugreeva the king by killing Vali (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 17)

7. Sri Rama giving refuge to Vibhisana: Sri Rama finally says that he must give protection to the one who comes to him. Also, there is no fear from him from demons since he can destroy them at will. Sugreeva finally accepts the view of Sri Rama. Obtaining refuge of Sri Rama, Vibhisana descends from the sky and comes to Sri Rama. Vibhisana along with his companion demons prostrates before Sri Rama and says that they have left their friends and families and have come to seek protection of Sri Rama. Sri Rama welcomes them and asks about the strengths and weaknesses of the enemies. Vibhisana tells about the strengths of Ravana, Kumbhakarna, Prahasta, Indrajit, Mahodara, Mahaparsva and Akampana. Hearing the words of Vibhisana, Sri Rama says that he has heard of those, and they are all true (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 18 to 19)

8. Sri Rama consecrating Vibhishana as king: Sri Rama says takes the oath that only after killing Ravana along with his sons will he enter Ayodhya, and that thereafter he will make Vibhishana the king. Vibhishana on his part says that he will extend all possible help. Sri Rama asks Lakshmana to consecrate Vibhishana as the king with the water of the ocean (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 19)

9. Sri Rama seeking refuge of the ocean: Sugreeva and Hanuman asks Vibhishana the way to cross the mighty ocean. Vibhishana suggests that Sri Rama seeks the refuge of the ocean. The ocean which was excavated by Sagara (a king of the dynasty of Sri Rama) will be inclined to extend help to Sri Rama. Sri Rama finds the words of Vibhishana agreeable and sits down on the shore of the ocean on a seat of Kusa grass (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 19)

10. Sri Rama protecting Shuka: Shardula, a demon of Ravana comes to the battle camp of Sri Rama and inspecting the army of vanaras informs Ravana about the enemy. Ravana sends Shuka to sow the seeds of dissention by telling Sugreeva in a sweet manner to return since there will be no gain for him in this battle. It does not matter to him whether Ravana has kidnapped the wife of another prince. Also, Lanka is impenetrable and the vanaras will not be able to cross the ocean. Shuka takes the form of a bird and flies over the ocean. Shuka conveys the message of Ravana to Sugreeva from the sky. The other vanaras in anger captures Shuka and torments him. Sri Rama protects Shuka. Sugreeva gives a stern reply to Shuka. Angada says that Shuka is not an envoy but a spy who has seen the battle arrangements of Sri Rama. The vanaras again capture Shuka and torments him. Shuka laments and takes refuge in Sri Rama. Sri Rama protects Shuka (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 20)

11. Sri Rama encountering the Ocean-god: Sri Rama lies down on a bed of Kusha grass on the shore of the ocean seeking his refuge and a passage through the ocean for the vanara armies to cross. Sri Rama spends three nights in that manner. However, the Ocean-god did not appear before Sri Rama. Sri Rama becomes angry and takes up the bow to agitate and dry up the ocean. Sri Rama releases terrible arrows penetrating the ocean. The ocean becomes greatly agitated and smoke starts coming out of it. The beings of the subterranean region becomes shaken. Lakshmana then restrains Sri Rama from releasing further arrows and suggests him to find alternative solutions. Sri Rama then takes up the Brahma Astra and proceeds to dry up the ocean for making a passage for the vanaras. When Sri Rama stretches his bow, it greatly agitates the world and its creatures. The Ocean-god then appears before Sri Rama and says that the nature of the elements are fixed by God. So the ocean is fathomless by its own nature. Its water cannot be solidified due to fear and favour. The Ocean-god agrees to suggest a way and bear with a passage over him for the vanaras to cross. Sri Rama says that the Brahma Astra cannot be taken back and asks the Ocean-god a place to discharge it. The Ocean-god suggests a holy place called Drumatulya on its northern part which is infested by robbers. The place where Sri Rama released the arrow came to be known as the desert of Maru. The Ocean-god then suggests Sri Rama to build a bridge through Nala, the son of Vishwakarma and that he will bear that bridge (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 21 to 22)

12. Sri Rama building a bridge across the ocean: According to the wish of Sri Rama the vanaras start building a bridge joyfully, and were presided over by Nala. The vanaras bring huge rocks and trees and throws them over the ocean. Making large ropes out of reeds they tie over the rocks to hold them. On the first day fourteen yojanas of bridge was constructed. On the second day twenty yojanas of bridge was constructed. On the third day twenty one yojanas of bridge was constructed. On the fourth day twenty-two yojanas of bridge was constructed. On the fifth day twenty-three yojanas of bridge was constructed up to the sea shore. The celestials see that wonder bridge from the firmament constructed by Nala and praises Sri Rama. Sri Rama and Lakshmana ascends over the shoulders of Hanuman and Angada respectively and crosses over the ocean with the vanaras armies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 22)



16. Lanka (Suvela mountain):

Sri Rama killing Kumbhakarna Sri Rama killing Ravana at Lanka 1. Sri Rama seeing portents of destruction: Sri Rama describes to Lakshmana various portents of great destruction and asks the army to be divided into battalions. Winds were blowing with dust. Earth was trembling. Mountain peaks were shaking. Trees were falling down. Clouds of dirty color were showering drops of blood. Evening twilight was red like red sandalwood. Wild animals were roaring with great fear. Moon was having a black and red halo. The solar disc was having a dark stain. Stars were enveloped with dust. Crows, eagles and vultures were flying at a low height. The jackals were howling. Sri Rama decides to attack Lanka that moment itself (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 23)

2. Sri Rama dividing the army into battalions: Sri Rama enters Lanka and hears the battle sound of kettldrums. The vanaras drown that sound with the sound of their own roar. Sri Rama describes the beauty of Lanka to Lakshmana and then divides the army of vanaras into battalions. He positions Angada and Nila at the center. He positions Rishabha at the right. He positions Gandhamadana at the left. He positions himself and Lakshmana at the front. He positions Jambavan, Sushena and Vegadarshi in the belly-position. He positions Sugreeva at the rear side (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 24)

3. Sri Rama releasing Shuka as the messenger of Ravana: Sri Rama then releases Shuka as the messenger of Ravana. Shuka trembling with fear reaches Ravana. He reports that Rama has come to Lanka with a huge army of vanaras by building a bridge. He tells Ravana that the only options now were either to restore Sita or be ready for a combat. Ravana in anger says that he will not restore Sita and teach a lesson to Rama with his arrows (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 24)

4. Ravana sending Shuka and Sarana to gauge the strength of the enemy: Ravana then sends Shuka and Sarana to gauge the strength of the enemies. He tells them to report the key ministers and generals in the army and their striking power. Shuka and Sarana enter the army of Rama in the guise of vanaras. Vibhisana recognises and captures them, and produces them before Sri Rama. They tremble with fear and confess that they were sent by Ravana to know about the army of Rama. Sri Rama smiles and says whether they have properly executed their task; and if so they may go. Else Vibhisana can show them what is remaining. Sri Rama gives the message to Ravana to display that force of him by which he had abducted Devi Sita. Sri Rama says that tomorrow at day break he will attack Lanka. Shuka and Shardula returns to Ravana and says that the army of Rama is unconquerable and suggests Ravana to return Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 25)

5. Ravana seeing the huge army of vanaras: Ravana says that he will not give back Sita even if attacked by celestials and demons. He then ascends to the roof of the palace along with his spies and sees that Lanka was completely filled with the army of vanaras. Ravana then asks the spies about the key army generals. Sarana points to valiant Angada the crown prince and son of Vali, Nala the builder of bridge, Sweta the clever and powerful, Kumuda the ruler of the mountain region Ramya, Rambha who dwells in the Krishna and Sahya mountains of the Vindhya region, Sarabha who dwells in the Salveya mountain, Panasa who dwells in the Pariyatra mountain, and also Vinata, Krathana and many others, each of whom wields a huge army. Sarana points out Dhumra (bear) who dwell in the Rikshavanta mountain, Jambavan, Dambha who dwell in the Sahasraksha mountain, Samnada who fought even with Indra, Krathana, Pramathi who dwells in the Mandara and Ushirabija mountain and is a terror to wild elephants, Gavaksha, Kesari who dwells in the Kanchana mountain, Shatabali, Gaja, Gavaya, Nala, Nila and many others who are devoted to Sri Rama and do not have fear of death. Shuka then points out Mainda, Dwivida, and exceedingly powerful Hanuman who can change his form at will. Shuka then points out Sri Rama and Lakshmana, and Vibhisana, and Sugreeva, and their army consisting of crores of vanaras. Ravana becomes angry with Shuka and Sarana who praised the strength of enemies and tells them to stay out of his neighbourhood (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 26 to 29)

6. Sri Rama releasing spy Shardula: Ravana then sends more spies under the leadership of Shardula to know more about the enemies. Those spies see Rama and Lakshmana on the neighbourhood of Suvela mountain. They become afraid seeing the huge army of vanaras. Vibhisana recognises the spies and captures them. The vanaras torture the spies but Sri Rama releases them out of kindness. Shardula goes back to Ravana and reports that Rama and Lakshmana are camping on the vicinity of the Suvela mountain. Shardula informs that nothing can be found by interrogating the vanaras. Ravana asks about the key vanaras who are powerful. Shardula points out Sugreeva, Hanuman, Sushena, Dadhimukha, Sumukha, Durmukha, Vegadarshi, Nila, Angada, Mainda, Dwividha, Gaja, Gavaksha, Gavaya, Sharabha and Gandhamadana. Shardula then points out Rama and Lakshmana and Vibhisana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 29 to 30)

7. Ravana conjuring up trick to make Devi Sita submit: After hearing about Sri Rama camping at the Suvela mountain, Ravana urgently calls a meeting and consults with his ministers. He then calls Vidyujjihva, a demon expert in sorcery and creates an artificial head and bow of Sri Rama. Ravana then goes to the Ashoka garden and tells Devi Sita that Rama has been killed with his army by the demons at night (who attacked them when they were asleep). Lakshmana has somehow escaped. Therefore she should forget about her previous husband and accept him as her husband. Devi Sita laments and tells Ravana to also kill her so that she can join her great husband. In the meantime a demon comes and informs Ravana that Prahasta wants to meet him urgently. Ravana departs and the head also vanishes. Ravana orders to assemble his forces immediately (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 31 to 32)

8. Sarama informing the truth to Devi Sita: Sarama, a kind-hearted demoness seeing the condition of Devi Sita tells the truth to her that it is a trick of Ravana and Sri Rama is alive and stationed with his huge army in Lanka. He will soon kill Ravana and take her back. Soon kettledrums of demons were heard and Sarama informs that preparation for war going on. Devi Sita tells her to invisibly go to Ravana and hear about his decision to release her. Sarama goes to Ravana secretly and hears about his conversation with the ministers. She comes back and tells Devi Sita that Ravana has decided not to release her (in spite of persuasion by his aged mother and ministers) and is making preparation to wage a war against Sri Rama. They hear the war-sound of the vanara armies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 33 to 34)

9. Malyavan advising Ravana: Malyavan, the maternal grandfather of Ravana advises him to make peace with Rama and restore Sita. He says that the celestials and sages are with Rama. Due to unrigheousness of Ravana, the evil fruits are now befalling on the demons. The insurmountable power of the sages whose minds are purified by penance are intent on establishing righteousness (by destroying the unrighteousness of the demons). The boon of invincibility of Ravana is only from celestials, demons and yakshas. They are not applicable for bears or vanaras (or human beings). Malyavan says that he is seeing many evil portents. Rains are showering blood. Elephants and horses have become pale and are weeping. Jackals and eagles are making horrible sounds. Dogs are eating the sacred offerings. Donkeys are born of cows etc. Malyavan finally says that he deems Sri Rama as an incarnation of Vishnu and not a mere human being (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 35)

10. Ravana abusing Malyavan and preparing for war: Ravana says that Malyavan is exaggerating the strength of Rama who is a mere human being taking help from vanaras, and undermining his strength who possess all power and terrifies the celestials. He says that he will not restore Sita, but make sure that the enemies do not go back alive, now that they have crossed the ocean. Ravana then entrusts the protection of the eastern gate of Lanka to Prahasta, southern gate to Maha Parshva and Mahodara, western gate to Indrajit and northern gate to Shuka and Sarana. He places Virupaksha at the center of the fort (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 36)

11. Vibhisana sending spies: Sri Rama, Lakshmana, Sugreeva, Hanuman and others discuss about ways to attack Lanka. Vibhisana informs that he has sent spies Anala, Panasa, Sampati and Pramati (in the form of birds), who has returned with the news of Lanka. Vibhisana says that Prahasta is guarding the eastern gate, Mahaparshva and Mahodara are guarding the southern gate, Indrajit is guarding the western gate and Ravana himself is guarding the northern gate. Virupaksha is guarding the center of the fort (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 37)

12. Sri Rama giving orders of attack: Hearing the report of Vibhisana, Sri Rama orders Nila to attack the eastern gate guarded by Prahasta. Sri Rama orders Angada to attack the southern gate guarded by Mahaparshva and Mahodara. Sri Rama orders Hanuman to attack the western gate guarded by Indrajit. Sri Rama himself along with Lakshmana decided to attack the northern gate guarded by Ravana. Sri Rama orders Sugreeva, Jambavan and Vibhisana to occupy the central part of the army. Sri Rama instructs the vanaras not to assume human form for they need to be recognised. Only he, Lakshmana, Vibhisana and his four companions will assume human form. After giving the instructions, Sri Rama decides to camp on the charming mount Suvela during that night (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 37)

13. Sri Rama observing Lanka from mount Suvela: Sri Rama then ascends mount Suvela along with Lakshmana, Sugreeva and Vibhisana to observe the beauty of Lanka. Hanuman, Angada and other vanaras also ascended the mountain. After observing Lanka they camp on the mountain to spend the night. They also observe the beautiful gardens of Lanka filled with various trees. Some of the vanaras enter those groves. The city of Lanka was located on the top of the Trikuta mountain which was twenty yojanas in length and ten yojanas in breath. Seeing the splendour of Lanka, Sri Rama and Lakshmana was astonished (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 38 to 39)

14. Sugreeva springs on Ravana: Seeing Ravana inside Lanka, Sugreeva in anger goes there, announces his identity and springs on him. Sugreeva throws the crown of Ravana on the ground. The two wrestles with each other for a long time. Then Ravana decides to use his magical powers. Understanding this, Sugreeva flies off in the sky and reaches on the side of Sri Rama, leaving Ravana in a state of bewilderment. Sri Rama tells Sugreeva not to repeat such reckless act which does not befit a king (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 40 to 41)

15. Sri Rama besieging Lanka: Sri Rama sees many omens of destruction (of both demons and vanaras). The winds are blowing harsh. The earth and the mountains are shaking. Clouds are appearing cruel and shedding rains mixed with blood. The sun at dusk is appearing like fireball. The animals and birds are crying. The moon is appearing reddish. The orb of the Sun is having black marks. Crows, eagles and vultures are flying low and the jackals are howling. Sri Rama climbs down the Suvela mountain and marches forward with the armies of vanaras. Reaching the city of Lanka the huge army of vanaras besiege it from all sides (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 41)

16. Sri Rama sending Angada as messenger: Sri Rama then sends Angada to Ravana with a stern message. He gives the message that the arrogance of Ravana by which he tormented the sages and celestials will now be subdued. Due to abduction of Devi Sita he will now be slain, and then slain by him he will attain the region of gods. He asks Ravana to demonstate the same power and courage by which he abducted Devi Sita. If he does not return Sita, he will make the world free of demons. Vibhisana who has come to him will now become the king. Angada reaches the palace of Ravana and delivers the message. Ravana becomes enraged and orders the killing of Angada. When four demons try to seize Angada, he catches hold of them and flings them on the ground. Then Angada ascends the roof of the palace and shatters it with his feet. Then creating agitation among the demons he returns to Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 41)

17. The battle begins between vanaras and demons: The demons inform Ravana that the city of Lanka has been beseiged by the vanaras. Ravana ascends his mansion and sees that the entire Lanka has been surrounded by the vanaras. Sri Rama remembering the afflictions of Devi Sita orders to destroy the enemies. The vanaras taking up huge boulders and uprooting trees start destroying the defensive structures of Lanka. They fill up the moats with sand and other materials. Ravana orders the demons to start the combat. The demons blaring kettle-drums and conches rush forward. A terrible battle ensues between the demons and the vanaras. The demons attack the vanaras with their weapons consisting of maces, spears, axes etc. The vanaras attack the demons with trees, rocks and with their nails and teeth (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 42)

18. Duels arising between the key generals: Then fierce duels arise between the key generals of either side. Indrajit fights with Angada. Sampati fights with Prajangha. Hanuman fights with Jambumali. Vibhisana fights with Shatrughna. Gaja fights with Tapana. Nila fights with Nikumbha. Sugreeva fights with Praghasa. Lakshmana fights with Virupaksha. Sri Rama fights with Agniketu, Rashmiketu etc. Mainda fights with Vajramushti. Dwividha fights with Ashaniprabha. Nala fights with Pratapana. Sushena fights with Vidyunmali. Sampati kills Prajangha with an Ashvakarna tree. Hanuman ascending the chariot of Jambumali overthrows the demon. Nala subdues Pratapana. Sugreeva kills Praghasa with a Saptaparna tree. Lakshmana kills Virupaksha with his arrows. Rama chops the hands of Agniketu, Rashmiketu and his other opponents. Mainda subdues Vajramushti. Nila chops the head of Nikumbha with the wheel of his chariot. Dwivida strikes Ashaniprabha with a Sala tree. Sushena crushes Vidyunmali with a huge rock. The terrific battle continues till sunset (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 43)

19. A nocturnal war starting after sunset: After sunset a nocturnal war starts between the vanaras and the demons. Sri Rama and Lakshmana kills some key demons, some of whom were invisible. Sri Rama injures demons Yagnasharu, Mahaparshva, Mahodara, Vajradamstra, Shuka and Sarana with his arrows who somehow escape alive. Sri Rama kills many other demons who comes to fight with him. Angada strikes Indrajit along with his chariot and horses. Indrajit vanishes from the spot by his trick. The celestials, Sri Rama, Lakshmana, Vibhisana and others praises Angada (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 44)

20. Indrajit binding Sri Rama and Lakshmana with Nagastra: Indrajit becomes invisible and binds Sri Rama and Lakshmana by hurling Nagastras on them with his spell. Sri Rama orders the vanara generals to search for Indrajit. The vanaras explore the ten directions. Indrajit however checks their advances by his magical weapons. The vanaras could not find Indrajit at night. Indrajit wounds and transfixes Rama and Lakshmana with a network of arrows. Indrajit declares that he cannot be located even by celstials when he is invisible. He discharges more arrows and wounds Rama and Lakshmana. Rama and Lakshmana injured by the arrows of Indrajit all over falls on the ground. Indrajit had hurled fatal weapons like Narchas, Ardha Narchas, Bhallas, Anjalis, Vatsa Dantas, Simha Dantas etc. The vanaras become plunged in despair. Nila, Dwividha, Mainda, Sushena, Kumuda, Angada and Hanuman begin to grieve. Vibhisana through his powers detects Indrajit hidden in the sky. Indrajit declares to the demons that he has killed Rama and Lakshmana. Indrajit then strikes the chiefs of vanaras with his arrows. He strikes Nila, Mainda, Dwividha, Jambavan, Hanuman, Gavaksha, Sharabha and Angada. The demons roars with joy. Indrajit then returns to Lanka (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 44 to 46)

21. Vibhisana consoling Sugreeva: When Sugreeva was plunged in grief, Vibhisana consoles him saying that wars are like that, and with luck Sri Rama and Lakshmana will regain consciousness. Vibhisana says that for those devoted to truth, there is no fear of death. Vibhisana then wipes the eyes of Sugreeva with his hands and tells him to give up despondency and protect the vanara troops, as well as Sri Rama and Lakshmana till they regain consciousness. Vibhisana says that Sri Rama is not going to die. He asks Sugreeva to restore confidence in the vanara troops and himself reassures the vanaras and instills courage in them (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 46)

22. Ravana praising Indrajit: Indrajit enters Lanka and saluting his father informs him that Rama and Lakshmana has been slain. Ravana springs up with joy and embraces Indrajit. Hearing the details of the war, Ravana praises Indrajit for his prowess (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 46)

23. Ravana taking Sita to battle-field: Ravana orders the demoness headed by Trijata to take Sita to the battlefield in the Pushpaka Vimana and see the conditions of Rama and Lakshmana with her own eyes. Let her see herself that the husband on whom she depended upon lies slain. Therefore she can submit to him. Ravana proclaims in Lanka that Rama and Lakshmana have been killed by Indrajit. Seeing Rama and Lakshmana lying motionless transfixed with arrows, and thinking them as dead, Devi Sita wails piteously. Devi Sita says that the astrologers predicted that she will not become widow and bear sons. They mentioned the auspicious marks on her body and predicted that she will be consecrated as a queen. Now all those predictions are rendered false. Trijata however consoles Devi Sita saying that Rama and Lakshmana are still alive. The army of vanaras are protecting them. Even celestials and demons cannot vanquish Rama and Lakshmana. Trijata points out that even lying on the bed of arrows, their splendour is intact which is a marvel in itself. Then Trijata takes her back to the Ashoka garden (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 47 to 48)

24. Sri Rama regaining consciousness: Sri Rama regains consciousness and seeing the plight of Lakshmana, starts lamenting. He says that it is not possible to find another brother like Lakshmana in the world. What will he say to the mothers and brothers if Lakshmana gives up his life? Sri Rama tells Sugreeva to cross the ocean and return to his kingdom. He says that he is ever grateful for the services rendered by them. Meanwhile Vibhisana comes there with a mace. The vanaras thinking him as Indrajit flies away. Sugreeva calms the vanaras. Seeing the conditions of the Sri Rama and Lakshmana, Vibhisana starts lamenting. Sugreeva consoles him and asks Sushena to take these brothers to Kishkindha till they regain consciousness. Sugreeva says that he will fight with Ravana and recover Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 49 to 50)

25. Sushena telling about Sanjeevani herb: Sushena tells Sugreeva that he has seen a terrible battle between the celestials and the demons. The demons becoming invisible wounded the celestials with their arrows. Brihaspati treated the celestials with herbs accompanied by mantras. Those herbs are available in the milky ocean within the mountain Drona and Chandra and are known as Sanjeeva Karani and Vishalya Karani. Let Sampati, Panasa and Hanuman quickly go there and fetch the herbs (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 50)

26. Garuda arriving and freeing Rama and Lakshmana: Garuda, the son of Vinata arrives creating a great commotion in the earth and the ocean. Seeing Garuda, the serpents binding Rama and Lakshmana leaves them and escape. Garuda heals Rama and Lakshmana with the touch of his wings. Their bodies regain the earlier lustre and strength. Lifting them up, Garuda embraces them. Sri Rama expresses gratefulness and asks Garuda about his identity. Garuda tells about himself and says that the serpents were the sons of Kadru converted into arrows by the spell of Indrajit. And he is a well-wisher of them. Garuda then takes leave and flies away. The vanara army roars with regained enthusiasm (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 50)

27. Ravana sending Dhumraksha, Hanuman slaying him: Hearing the joyous roars of the vanaras, Ravana sends his men to ascertain the cause. They inform that Rama and Lakshmana has shattered the fetters of arrows of Indrajit. Hearing the ability of his enemies, Ravana becomes anxious. He sends Dhumraksha to annihilate Rama and Lakshmana. Dhumraksha exits from the western gate where Hanuman was keeping guard. Dhumraksha sees many evil omens like vultures, rains filled with blood, and earth trembling. The demons become perturbed. Then a terrible battle ensues between the demons and the vanaras. When the army of vanaras were gaining an upperhand, Dhumraksha lets loose his weapons, slays a lot of vanaras and creates fear in them. Seeing this, Hanuman picks up a huge rock and shatters the chariot of Dhumraksha. Then he kills many demons and finally faces Dhumraksha. Dhumraksha attacks Hanuman on his head with his mace. Remaining unperturbed, Hanuman strikes Dhumraksha with a rock on his skull and kills him (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 51 to 52)

28. Ravana sending Vajradamstra, Angada slaying him: Hearing about the death of Dhumraksha in the battle, Ravana sends Vajradamstra. Vajradamstra exits from the southern gate where Angada was standing guard. Evil portents appear but Vajradamstra remains unperturbed. A terrific battle ensues between the demons and the vanaras. Angada devastates the army of the demons. The vanaras gain an upperhand in the battle. Seeing this Vajradamstra attacks the vanaras with his arrows and sows panic in them. The vanaras seek refuge with Angada. Vajradamstra attacks Angada with his arrows. Angada throws a tree but Vajradamstra cuts it to pieces. Angada then throws a large rock at Vajradamstra. Vajradamstra escapes but the rock destroys his chariot. Angada then throws a piece of mountain filled with trees at Vajradamstra. Vajradamstra vomits blood and faints for sometime. Then regaining consciousness he attacks Angada with his mace. After an encounter Angada hits the head of Vajradamstra with a sword and breaks it in to two pieces (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 53 to 54)

29. Ravana sending Akampana, Hanuman slaying him: Hearing about the death of Vajradamstra in the battle, Ravana sends Akampana. While going for the battle Akampana sees many evil potents. His chariot horses were being deprived of energy. His left eye was twitching. His face and voice was becoming pale. Good weather was turning into bad weather and the birds and beasts were crying terribly. Akampana ignores the portents and marches forward. A terrific battle ensues between the vanaras and the demons. Kumuda, Nala and Mainda displays great prowess and crushes the demons. Seeing the demons getting crushed, Akampana goes near the vanaras and starts crushing them. Some starts fleeing the battle-field. Then Hanuman of mighty prowess comes to their rescue. Akampana attacks Hanuman with lot of arrows. Ignoring the arrows, Hanuman laughs and picks up a mighty mountain. Then he swirls the mountain and hurls on Akampana. Akampana shatters the mountains by means of his arrows. Hanuman in anger uproots an Ashwakarna tree and swirling it starts destroying the demons with their elephants and chariots (assuming a terrible form like Yama). Akampana strikes Hanuman with fourteen arrows. Hanuman uproots another tree and strikes the head of Akampana. Akampana falls down dead (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 55 to 56)

30. Ravana sending Prahasta, Nila slaying him: Hearing about the death of Akampana in the battle, Ravana sends Prahasta. Prahasta marches forward with a huge army with powerful demons like Narantaka, Kumbhahanu, Mahanada and Samunnata. He exits from the eastern gate. Evil portents appear. Flesh-eating birds move around the chariot. Jackals start howling. A mateor falls from the sky. Wind blows harshly. Clouds shed blood on the chariot of Prahasta. A vulture starts croaking. The goad of the charioteer falls from his hand several times. Ignoring the portents, Prahasta marches forward and attacks the army of Sugreeva. A terrible battle ensues between the vanaras and the demons. Narantaka, Kumbhahanu, Mahanada and Samunnata kills many vanaras. Dwivida strikes down Narantaka with a mountain peak. Durmukha uproots a tree and crushes down Samunnata. Jambavan strikes the chest of Mahanada with a huge rock. Tara kills Kumbhahanu. Then Prahasta causes havoc among the vanaras with his arrows. Nila, seeing the vanaras getting crushed rushes towards Prahasta. Prahasta attacks him with arrows. Nila endures them and strikes Prahasta with an uprooted tree. Nila kills the horses of Prahasta with a Sala tree. Then Nila breaks the bow of Prahasta. Prahasta attacks Nila on his forehead with his mace. Nila strikes Prahasta with a tree. Ignoring that strike Prahasta rushes towards Nila to strike him again. Nila picks up a huge rock and hurls on the head of Prahasta. That rock breaks the head of Prahasta into pieces. Rama and Lakshmana praises Nila (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 57 to 58)

31. Ravana going to battle, Sri Rama defeating him: Hearing about the death of Prahasta in the battle, Ravana Ravana himself goes to the battle accompanied by powerful demons like Akampana, Indrajit, Atikaya, Mahodara, Pishacha, Trishira, Kumbha, Nikumbha, Narantaka. Rama says to Vibhisana that Ravana was shining like Yama himself and decides to face him. Sugreeva hurls a mountain peak on Ravana. Ravana breaks it with his arrows. Ravana then releases a powerful arrow on Sugreeva. Sugreeva loses consciousness. The demons raise a shout of triumph. Then Gavaksha, Gavaya, Sushena, Rishabha, Jyotimukha and Nala rushes Ravana with rocks. Ravana with his arrows makes their attacks fruitless and in turn attacks them with his arrows. Attacked by Ravana, the vanara generals fall on the ground. The vanara generals then flee and take refuge of Sri Rama. When Rama was going towards Ravana, Lakshmana prays that he be permitted to face Ravana. Sri Rama accedes and sends Lakshmana. In the meantime Hanuman comes to Ravana and threatens him to destroy with his right hand. Ravana tells Hanuman to strike him first so that he can measure his strength. Hanuman reminds Ravana that he has killed his son Aksha. Ravana in anger strikes Hanuman violently on his chest with his hand. Hanuman reels for some time, but soon regaining his balance strikes Ravana with his hand. Ravana reels for some time but regains his balance also. Ravana then strikes Hanuman again on his chest. Hanuman reels again. Ravana turns his chariot towards Nila. Ravana strikes Nila with his arrows. Nila hurls a huge rock towards Ravana. Ravana shatters the rock of Nila. Meanwhile Hanuman regains his balance and comes there. Nila then hurls various other trees like Ashwakarna, Shala, Cuta etc on Ravana. Ravana shatters those trees and attacks Nila with his arrows. Nila then rapidly changes his size and amazes Ravana with his agility. The vanaras shout and confuses Ravana. Ravana then hurls an Agneya astra (Arrow of Fire god) on Nila. Nila falls on the ground being burnt all over. Ravana then rushes towards Lakshmana. Ravana releases several arrows which Lakshmana destroys with his own arrows. Lakshmana then breaks the arrows of Ravana with his own arrows (called Khura, Ardhachandra, Karni, Bhalla etc). Ravana becomes astonished at the skill of Lakshmana. Ravana strikes the forehead of Lakshmana with a powerful arrow given to him by Brahma. Lakshmana reels for some time but regains his balance. Then Lakshmana attacks Ravana with his arrows, breaks his bows and makes him swoon. Ravana gains his balance and hurls a spear at Lakshmana. The spear makes Lakshmana fall on the ground. Ravana rushes and tries to lift Lakshmana but unable to do so. Struck by the weapon of Ravana, Lakshmana recollects that he is a part of Lord Vishnu. Then Hanuman rushes and strikes Ravana with his hand. Ravana reels and falls down. He sits motionless in the middle of his chariot. Hanuman lifts Lakshmana and brings him near Sri Rama. To Hanuman, Lakshmana becomes light due to his devotion. The spear leaves Lakshmana and returns to the chariot of Ravana. Ravana also regains consciousness. Sri Rama now rushes towards Ravana mounting on the shoulders of Hanuman. Ravana in anger first strikes Hanuman with his arrows. Seeing Hanuman wounded, Sri Rama shatters the chariot of Ravana with his arrows. He then strikes Ravana on his chest with a powerful arrow. Ravana swoons. Sri Rama then shatters the diadem of Ravana. Thereafter he releases Ravana telling him to return to Lanka and come back with his strength regained. Ravana returns to Lanka defeated. Sri Rama then arranges for drawing out the arrows from Lakshmana and other injured vanaras. The celestials feel great joy seeing the defeat of Ravana in the hands of Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 59)

32. Ravana feeling humbled: Entering the city of Lanka, Ravana feels humbled and was afflicted with the fear of the arrows of Sri Rama. Ravana becomes overwhelmed by Rama of great soul as an elephant is overwhelmed by a lion or a serpent by Garuda. Ravana says that all his penance has come to a waste since he has been defeated by a man. He recollects the word of Lord Brahma that he is not immune from threat from men. He recollects that he sought immunity from celestials and others but not from men. He recollects that Anaranya from Ikshvaku dynasty has cursed him that a man born in his race will destroy him. He says that Vedavati whom he has formerly humiliated has been born as Sita. He says that the predictions of Parvati, Nandishwara, Rambha and Punjikasthala is coming true (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 60)

33. Ravana arousing Kumbhakarna: Ravana then orders the demons to arouse Kumbhakarna who has gone for sleep and who sleeps for several months. The demons enter the huge cave of Kumbhakarna. They place a huge pile of food in front of him and refresh him with perfumes. Then they make great clamour by blowing conches, beating drums, clapping hands etc. But Kumbhakarna did not awaken. Then the demons start striking him with maces, hammers and fists. But Kumbhakarna was still asleep. Thousands of demons then make a huge sound with kettle-drums, cymbals, trumpets and conches along with beating him. But Kumbhakarna was still asleep. Then they make horses, donkeys, camels etc. trample on him. But Kumbhakarna was still asleep. Then they make thousand elephants run over his body. Then Kumbhakarna becomes slightly awake. But due to hunger, he suddenly rises up. Kumbhakarna appears like death itself willing to devour everything. The demons point out animals like boars and buffaloes which Kumbhakarna devours. Then he eats the mountain of food placed by the demons and feels satiated. Kumbhakarna then asks the reason for awaking him, querying whether any peril has fallen over Lanka. A minister named Yupaksha mentions about the defeat of Ravana in the hands of a man. Kumbhakarna goes with the demons to meet Ravana. Seeing his huge and terrible form the vanaras start running helter-skelter (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 60)

34. Sri Rama enquiring about Kumbhakarna: Sri Rama then enquires about Kumbhakarna. Vibhisana starts telling him the story of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna is the son of Visravasa and has defeated Indra and an army of celestials in the battle. After taking birth, because of hunger he started devouring thousands of living creatures. The people were frightened and sought refuge of Indra. The mighty Indra struck Kumbhakarna with his thunderbolt. Kumbhakarna became enraged and plucking a tusk of Airavata, struck Indra on his chest. Indra went to Brahma to seek refuge. To save the world from the devouring Kumbhakarna, Brahma gave the curse that he will be sleeping from now onwards. Kumbhakarna became humbled and pleaded with Ravana. Ravana pleaded with Brahma. Lord Brahma then relaxed the curse saying that Kumbhakarna will sleep for six months and wake up only for one day in a year. Vibhisana says that Kumbhakarna has been awakened by Ravana for the battle. Sri Rama asks Nila to prepare the army to stand ready for striking with rocks and trees (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 61)

35. Kumbhakarna meeting Ravana and assuring him: Kumbhakarna then meets Ravana who apprises him of the danger from Rama with his army of vanaras. That army is rapidly destroying the demons and some key demons are already dead. Ravana requests Kumbhakarna to show his prowess and save Lanka by destroying Rama and the vanaras. Ravana says that he has never requested anyone like this before. Kumbhakarna scolds Ravana for not heeding the wise counsel before due to his sheer arrogance. Kumbhakarna says that action done without proper deliberation gets spoiled like offering oblations without preparing the fire. Men resort to haughty actions without consulting the scriptures. Kumbhakarna says that the advice of Vibhisana was indeed beneficial to him. Ravana becomes angry and says that there is no use of giving advice but doing what is to be done now. He is a true friend who rescues a kinsman during the time of trouble. Seeing Ravana getting perturbed, Kumbhakarna assures him that he will destroy his enemies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 62 to 63)

36. Mahodara giving advice, Kumbhakarna rebuking him: Mahodara opposes the view of Kumbhakarna and supports the act of Ravana. He says that only actions lead to results and the king has taken the appropriate course of action as needed for increasing the pleasure of the demons. Mahodara advises Kumbhakarna not to go the battlefield alone but take an army. He also tells Ravana about a plan to proclaim after the battle that Rama is dead (irrespective of whether the demons are defeated) and make Sita submit to him. Kumbhakarna rebukes Mahodara and assures Ravana. Ravana decorates Kumbhakarna with various jewellery and tells him to take an army with him (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 64 to 65)

37. Kumbhakarna going to the battlefield, Sri Rama slaying him: Kumbhakarna marches to the battlefield with a sharp spike in hand and followed by an army. He assumes a collosal form. However, evil omens appear in Nature. The earth trembles and lightning appears over the ashy clouds. Jackals howl. A vulture descends on the spike of Kumbhakarna. His left eye twitched and his left arm throbbed. A meteor falls down. Ignoring the evil omens, Kumbhakarna marches on. The vanaras seeing his terrific form becomes frightened and starts running away. Seeing the vanaras fleeing, Kumbhakarna rejoices and roars. Angada instills courage in the vanaras. He says to Nala, Nila, Gavaksha and Kumuda not to abandon their nobilities and run away like common vanaras. Angada says that Kumbhakarna is merely a large appearance of terror but without much ability to combat. The vanaras shore up their courage and hits Kumbhakarna with rocks and trees. Kumbhakarna remain unshaken. He destroys many powerful vanaras playfully. Angada again tries to assemble the vanaras saying not to behave like cowards, but if required die and reach the abode of Brahma which is difficult to obtain. Angada says that Kumbhakarna will not be able to withstand Sri Rama. However, many vanaras say that their lives are dearer to them and start fleeing. However, Angada makes them come back with his arguments. Rishabha, Sharabha, Mainda, Dhumra, Nila, Kumuda, Sushena, Gavaksha, Rambha, Tara, Dwividha, Panasa and Hanuman gets ready for the battle. Dwividha hurls a mountain on Kumbhakarna which misses him and falls on the army. Dwividha hurls another mountain and crushes the demons. Hanuman hurls rocks and trees on the head of Kumbhakarna from the sky. Kumbhakarna breaks all those with his spike. Hanuman strikes again and injures Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna strikes Hanuman on his chest with his spike. Hanuman vomits blood and roars. The demons rejoice and the vanaras start fleeing. Nila hurls a mountain-top on Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna strikes it with his fist and breaks it into pieces. Rishabha, Sharabha, Nila, Gavaksha and Gandhamadana jointly attacks Kumbhakarna from all sides with rocks, trees, nails and fists. Kumbhakarna remains unperturbed as if simply touched. He squeezes Rishabha and throws him on the ground. Rishabha vomits blood. Then Kumbhakarna strikes and injures Sharabha, Nila, Gavaksha and Gandhamadana. Then thousands of vanaras ascends on the body of Kumbhakarna and starts biting and hitting him. Kumbhakarna devours them like an eagle. After getting devoured, the vanaras start exiting from his nostrils and ears. Kumbhakarna then starts to split the vanaras before devouring them. The vanaras seek refuge in Sri Rama. Angada in anger hurls a rock on the head of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna attacks Angada with his spike but Angada avoids it. Angada then strikes Kumbhakarna on his chest. Kumbhakarna becomes giddy for some time and throws down Angada violently. Angada becomes unconscious. Kumbhakarna then runs towards Sugreeva. Sugreeva hurls a mountain on Kumbhakarna. The mountain crushes to pieces after striking his chest. Kumbhakarna then hurls his spike towards Sugreeva. Hanuman jumps rapidly, and getting hold of the spike breaks it. The vanaras roar in rejoice and Kumbhakarna becomes downcast. Kumbhakarna then uproots a peak of the Malaya mountain and strikes Sugreeva. Sugreeva falls down unconscious. Kumbhakarna then seizes Sugreeva and starts carrying him away. At this critical juncture, Hanuman ponders over his duty. Hanuman thinks of assuming a huge form and destroying Kumbhakarna, but later thinks that he will only liberate Sugreeva and allow Sugreeva to strike Kumbhakarna when he regains his consciousness. Kumbhakarna enters the city of Lanka with the captured Sugreeva. The residents rejoice and showers flowers. By the sprinked waters, Sugreeva regains consciousness. Sugreeva then ponders about his course of action which will bring glory to the vanaras. He then tore the ears and nose of Kumbhakarna with his nails and teeth. Kumbhakarna in anger throws down Sugreeva and tries to crush him. Sugreeva escapes and unites with Sri Rama. Bereft of ears and nose, Kumbhakarna again marches to the battlefield with a hammer in hand, devouring the vanaras on the way like an inferno. Lakshmana intercedes and releases his arrows on Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna destroys the arrows of Lakshmana. Lakshmana releases more arrows on the armour of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna praises the heroism of Lakshmana, and as if granting him life, disregards him and marches towards Sri Rama. Sri Rama pierces the chest of Kumbhakarna with Raudra astra. Kumbhakarna roars terribly and vomits blood. The weapon drops off from the hand of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna starts fighting with his arms and continues to devour the vanaras. Kumbhakarna then hurls a mountain on Sri Rama. Sri Rama splits the mountain with his arrows. Lakshmana suggests the monkey troops to mount on Kumbhakarna and bring him down to a crawling position by their weight. Kumbhakarna however, shakes off the vanaras. Sri Rama becomes angry and quickly marches towards Kumbhakarna instilling confidence on the vanaras. Emitting a great sound by the twang of his bow Sri Rama enrages Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna runs towards Sri Rama. Sri Rama challenges him and says that he will now be dead within a moment. Kumbhakarna boasts and says that he is neither Viradha, Kabandha, Khara, Vali or Mareecha. He is Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna challenges Sri Rama to show his prowess before he devours him. Sr Rama releases many arrows but Kumbhakarna remains unmoved. The arrows which killed Vali could not afflict Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna brandishes his hammer and obstructs the arrows of Sri Rama. He scares away the vanaras. Then Sri Rama takes up the Vayavya weapon and chops off the arms of Kumbhakarna holding the hammer. Kumbhakarna roars terribly. That chopped arm falls down and destroys a regiment of vanaras. Kumbhakarna then uproots a tree with another arm and runs towards Sri Rama. Sri Rama chops off the other arm of Kumbhakarna also with his arrow charged with mantra. Sri Rama then chops off the feet of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna falls down creating a great sound. Kumbhakarna then tries to crawl towards Rama with mouth wide open and tries to devour him. Sri Rama fills the mouth of Kumbhakarna with his arrows and stops his roaring. Sri Rama then takes up the powerful Indra astra and chops off the head of Kumbhakarna. The head breaks down many buildings on the king's highway. The huge body of Kumbhakarna falls down on the sea. The celestials roar with joy. And the vanaras adore Sri Rama who shone like the Sun amidst the stars (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 65 to 67)

38. Ravana grieving over Kumbhakarna: Hearing about the death of Kumbhakarna, Ravana almost faints with shock. Other demons like Devantaka, Narantaka, Trishira and Atikaya (whose paternal uncle was Kumbhakarna) and Mahodara and Mahaparshva also plunges in grief. Ravana then laments saying that Kumbhakarna has gone to the hero's abode leaving him alone, as if severing his right hand. Ravana expresses his wonder how the invincible Kumbhakarna can be made to fall by the arrows of Rama. He says that bereft of Kumbhakarna, he has no wish for his kingdom or Devi Sita. Either he will kill Rama to take revenge or die, but no way continue to live a useless life. Ravana realises that the words of Vibhisana which he did not accept has come true. Ravana especially mentions about the death of Kumbhakarna and Prahasta, and the banishment of pious Vibhisana as the cause of his great pain (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 68)

39. Ravana sending his sons Trishira, Devantaka, Narantaka and Atikaya: Trishira (the son of Ravana) reminds Ravana of his strength and says that it does not befit him to grieve like an ordinary man. With the various boons and weapons he indeed can conquer Rama. Trishira asks for the permission to go to the battle and destroy Rama. Ravana as if gets a new life. Hearing the words of Trishira, the other sons of Ravana, Devantaka, Narantaka and Atikaya come forward. Ravana sends his powerful sons to the battle. To guard his sons, Ravana sends Yuddonmatta and Matta (also known as Mahodara and Mahaparshva) (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 69)

40. Angada slaying Narantaka: A fierce battle ensues among the vanaras and the demons. The demons rain arrows on the vanaras who retaliate with stones and trees. Soon the vanaras were having an upper hand. But Narantaka enters the battle scene and single-handedly destroys hundreds of vanaras with his javelin. Even before the vanaras lift their trees and rocks, Narantaka makes them fall in a moment. The vanaras then take refuge of Sugreeva. Sugreeva orders Angada to swiftly kill Narantaka. Angada challenges Narantaka and asks him to throw the javelin towards his chest. In anger Narantaka hurls his javelin towards Angada. That javelin breaks down into pieces hitting the chest of Angada. Angada strikes the head of Narantaka's horse and makes it fall dead. Narantaka in anger strikes Angada on his head with his fist. Angada swoons for some time with blood flowing out. Then regaining his balance he gives Narantaka a deadly blow on his chest with his fist. Narantaka falls down dead like a mountain. The celestials rejoice (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 69)

41. Hanuman slaying Devantaka: Seeing Angada kill Narantaka, Mahodara, Devantaka and Trishira jointly attacks Angada. Angada hurls a large tree at Devantaka. Trishira chops off that tree with his arrows. Then Angada hurls trees and rocks. Trishira breaks them with his arrows and Mahodara with his club. Trishira then attacks Angada with his arrows. At the sametime Mahodara strikes Angada on his chest with his javelin. Devantaka comes and strikes Angada with his club. Even though attacked at the same time by the three very powerful demons, Angada the son of Vali remain unperturbed and fights on. With great agility, Angada strikes the elephant of Devantaka with his hand and kills it. Then uprooting a tusk of that elephant Angada strikes Devantaka. Devantaka vomits blood but regaining his balance strikes Angada with his iron rod. Angada falls down but quickly springs up. At the same time, Trishira strikes Angada with three arrows on his forehead. Seeing Angada surrounded by powerful demons, Hanuman and Nila reaches there. Hanuman hurls a mountain peak on Trishira. Trishira breaks it down with his arrows. When Devantaka rushes towards Hanuman, Hanuman gives a terrible blow on his head with his fist. The head breaks down and Devantaka falls down dead with eyes and teeth protruding out (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 70)

42. Nila slaying Mahodara: Seeing Devantaka die, Trishira showers arrows on the chest of Nila in rage. At the same time Mahodara attacks Nila with arrows. Nila becomes benumbed for some time. Regaining consciousness Nila lifts a mountain piece with great speed and strikes Mahodara on his head. Being struck by that huge mountain piece, Mahodara falls down dead (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 70)

43. Hanuman slaying Trishira: Hanuman hurls a mountain piece on Trishira which he breaks down with his arrows. Hanuman then hurls many trees towards Trishira. Trishira chops them all with his arrows. Then Hanuman in anger tore the horse of Trishira with his nails. Trishira hurls a spear towards Hanuman. Hanuman catches that spear and breaks it. Trishira then lifts a sword and strikes Hanuman on his chest. Hanuman in retaliation strikes Trishira on his chest with his hand. Trishira falls down unconscious. Hanuman snatches the sword of Trishira and roars. Trishira gets up and strikes Hanuman with his fist. Hanuman holds the three heads of Trishira and chops them off with the sword (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 70)

44. Rishabha slaying Mahaparshva: Seeing Trishira die, Mahaparshva goes towards the vanaras with his mace. Rishabha obstructs the path of Mahaparshva. Mahaparshva strikes Rishabha on his chest with his mace. Rishabha loses his consciousness and falls down bleeding. Regaining his consciousness after sometime, he strikes Mahaparshvaa on his chest with his fist. Mahaparshva falls down on the ground bleeding. Then Rishabha takes away the mace of Mahaparshva. Regaining consciousness Mahaparshva strikes Rishabha. Rishabha falls down unconscious. Then regaining consciousness he strikes Mahaparshva with his mace. Mahaparshva falls down bleeding. Rishabha strikes Mahaparshva with that mace repeatedly and kills him. The army of demons flee the scene (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 70)

45. Lakshmana slaying Atikaya: Seeing his brothers and uncles slain in the battle, Atikaya becomes enraged. He roars and announces himself. Seeing his large body, the vanaras become frightened thinking him as another Kumbhakarna rising up. They take refuge in Sri Rama. Sri Rama asks Vibhisana who that formidable looking demon is. Vibhisana introduces him as Atikaya, the son of Ravana who has a boon from Brahma that his death will not occur on the hands of celestials and demons. Vibhisana suggests Rama to quickly destroy him, else he will rapidly destroy the army of vanaras. Kumuda, Dwivida, Mainda, Nila and Sharabha hurls trees and rocks on him, which Atikaya breaks with his arrows. Atikaya strikes the vanaras with arrows made of iron and makes them fall such that they are unable to retaliate again. Atikaya then moves towards Rama and says that he will not fight with common warriors. Whoever has the ability can challenge him. Lakshmana takes up the challenge and with the twang of his bow frightens the demons. Atikaya asks Lakshmana why he wants to lose his life unnecessarily by challenging him when he is still a boy. Lakshmana replies that merely by boasting a person does not become great. Let him show his strength before his head is made to fall by him. Lakshmana reminds him that Vishnu as a boy strode the three worlds, so he need not disregard a boy. Atikaya then hurls a powerful arrow which Lakshmana breaks with his own arrow. Atikaya further hurls five arrows together which Lakshmana also breaks with his arrows. Lakshmana then hurls a powerful arrow on the forehead of Atikaya and makes him tremble. Atikaya in reply releases several arrows together which Lakshmana breaks with his arrows. Becoming enraged, Atikaya strikes a powerful arrow on the chest of Lakshmana. Blood flows out of Lakshmana. However, Lakshmana quickly frees himself from that arrow and releases an Agni astra. Atikaya in reply releases the Surya astra. The two arrows nullify themselves. Atikaya then releases an arrow of Twasta which Laksmana nullifies with an arrow of Indra. Atikaya then hurls an arrow of Yama which Lakshmana nullifies with an arrow of Vayu. Lakshmana then hurls thousands of arrows on Atikaya which breaks down hitting his armour. Atikaya hurls a powerful arrow on Lakshmana and makes him unconscious for a moment. Lakshmana then breaks the flagstaff and kills the horses and charioteer of Atikaya with his arrows. The Wind-god then appears and tells Lakshmana to release a Brahma astra since Atikaya cannot be killed by any other weapons due to the boon of armour by Lord Brahma. Lakshmana then fixes a Brahma astra on his bow which makes the sun, moon and the earth agitate with fear. Lakshmana releases that arrow on Atikaya. Atikaya strikes that arrow of Brahma with several arrows as also with spike, spear and other weapons. The arrow of Lord Brahma nullifies all the weapons of Atikaya and finally severe the head of the demon. The vanaras worship Lakshmana. The demons flee in fear (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 71)

46. Ravana grieving in surprise: Hearing about the deaths of his sons, Ravana grieves and at the same time becomes surprised as to how Rama, Lakshmana and vanaras can destroy his powerful demons whom even celestials cannot defeat. Ravana becomes surprised as to how Rama and Lakshmana extricated themselves from the Naga astra of Indrajit from whose bind even celestials cannot free themselves. Ravana realises that he has no more generals who can withstand Rama and Lakshmana. Rama is really of mighty strength. Ravana instructs the demons to vigilantly guard the city and the Ashoka garden. He then retires to his chamber and grieves for the loss of his sons (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 72)

47. Indrajit taking revenge with Brahma astra: Hearing about the deaths of his sons, Ravana starts grieving with tears in his eyes. Seeing his father lamenting, Indrajit taking a firm resolve to destroy Rama and Lakshmana then itself, and goes to the battlefield. There, Indrajit performs a fire ritual and offers oblations. Indrajit then invokes the Brahma astra and stretches his bow making the sun, moon and the sky tremble. Indrajit makes himself invisible in the sky. By raining arrows and other weapons Indrajit swiftly annihilates the vanaras. Indrajit strikes all the principal generals of vanaras like Gandhamadana, Nala, Mainda, Gaja, Jambavan, Nila, Sugreeva, Rishabha, Angada, Dwividha, Hanuman, Sushena, Vegadarshi, Gavaya, Gavaksha, Kesari etc. Then Indrajit rains arrows on Rama and Lakshmana. Sri Rama tells Lakshmana to bear the rain of arrows of Indrajit with a calm mind which were presided over by Lord Brahma. Sri Rama decides to desist from fighting for the time being so that Indrajit returns to Lanka with a pride of victory. Making Rama and Lakshmana and the vanaras fall in the battle field, Indrajit returns to Lanka with the joy of victory (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 73)

48. Hanuman bringing the mountain of herbs from the Himalayas: The Brahma astra of Indrajit makes Sri Rama and Lakshmana and multitude of other vanaras senseless. Sugreeva, Nila, Angada and Jambavan feels hapless not knowing what to do. Vibhisana then consoles them saying that Sri Rama and Lakshmana has actually honoured the missile of Brahma, so there is no reason to feel sorrow. Hanuman and Vibhisana then starts roaming in the battle field with torches in hand and witnesses the devastation caused by Indrajit who has brought down sixty-seven crores of vanaras. They begin to search for Jambavan. Vibhisana locates Jambavan who was struck by arrows and could hear but not see. Jambavan enquires whether Hanuman was alive. Vibhisana was surprised and asks why he was showing favour to Hanuman leaving Sri Rama, Lakshmana, Sugreeva or Angada. Jambavan replies that if Hanuman has survived there is a chance of survival of other vanaras, else they are like dead even if alive. Hanuman then comes forward and offers his salutations to Jambavan. Seeing Hanuman alive, Jambavan feels himself born again. Jambavan then tells Hanuman to go to the Himalayas, travelling high over the ocean. There he will see the peaks of mount Rishabha and Kailasha. In between the two peaks, there is a mountain containing all the herbs. There will be four herbs which will shine illuminating the four quarters. They are Mrita Sanjeevani (bringing back the life force), Vishalya Karani (removing poison), Suvarnakarani (healing, bringing back the golden complexion) and Sandhani (joining fractures bones). Hanuman then with great vigour ascends mount Trikuta and presses it with his feet to take off, thereby making Lanka tremble. He then takes off and ascends mount Malaya and roars, making the demons tremble. Hanuman takes off from mount Malaya towards the Himalayas. Reaching Himalayas, Hanuman sees many waterfalls and the hermitages of the sages. Hanuman sees the abode of Brahma, Shiva, Indra, worshipping place of Hayagriva, abode of Agni, Kubera etc. Hanuman sees mount Kailasha and mount Rishabha illumined by herbs. He starts searching for the herbs. The principal herbs disappear knowing that someone is searching for them. Hanuman in anger uproots the whole mountain and carries it to Lanka. Keeping the mountain, Hanuman salutes the principal vanaras and embraces Vibhisana. By inhaling the smell of the herbs, Sri Rama, Lakshmana and the vanaras rise up getting healed. All the vanaras who had died earlier rises up alive. Hanuman then carries the mountain back to the Himalayas and joins Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 74)

49. Sugreeva setting Lanka on fire: Sugreeva orders the vanaras to set Lanka on fire. In the evening the vanaras attack Lanka with torches in hand. The guards flee. The vanaras then throws the fire towards the gates, streets and mansions. Mansions containing various gems, clothing, ornaments, cosmetics, weapons etc. get consumed by that fire. Women of Lanka start screaming and begins to run to save themselves. The guards let loose the elephants and horses to save them from the fire. It appears as if the time of dissolution has come upon Lanka. And at the same time the vanaras attack the demons. Sri Rama stretches his bow and strikes fear in the demons with the sound of its twang. Sri Rama tumbles down the main gate of the city with his arrows. Sugreeva orders the vanaras to wage a war with the demons (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 75)

50. Ravana sending Kumbha, Nikumbha and other generals: Ravana wakes up enraged and sends Kumbha and Nikumbha, the sons of Kumbhakarna to fight with the vanaras. He further sends Yupaksha, Shonitaksha, Prajangha and Kampana with the sons of Kumbhakarna. A terrific fight ensues between the demons and the vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 75)

51. Angada slaying Kampana: Angada attacks Kampana. Kampana strikes him violently with mace and makes him reel. Angada restores his balance and hurling a mountain peak on Kampana kills him (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 76)

52. Angada slaying Prajangha: Seeing Kampana dead, Shonitaksha attacks Angada with very powerful arrows like Kshura, Kshurapra, Naracha, Vatsanda, Shilimukha, Karni, Shalya and Vipatha. The arrows wound Angada who in fury crushes the chariot, bows and arrows of Shonitaksha. Shonitaksha takes up his sword and shield and attacks Angada. Snatching away his sword, Angada roars and strikes Shonitaksha from left to right with the sword. Shonitaksha falls down but after regaining consciousness attacks Angada again with his mace. At the same time Prajangha and Yupaksha attacks Angada with their maces. Mainda and Dwivida now come to protect Angada. A fierce battle ensues between the three demons and the three vanaras. The vanaras hurl trees over the demons. Prajangha cuts them with his sword. The vanaras hurl trees and rocks towards the chariots of the demons. Yupaksha breaks them with his arrows. Shonitaksha chops off the trees hurled by Dwividha and Mainda. Prajangha then attacks Angada with his sword. Angada strikes him with an Ashvakarna tree. Then striking with fist Angada makes his sword fall. Prajangha strikes Angada with his fist and makes him shudder for a moment. Regaining his balance, Angada then gives him a mighty blow with his fist making his head fall off from his trunk (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 76)

53. Dwivida slaying Shonitaksha: Seeing Prajangha dead, Yupaksha rushes towards Dwivida with his sword. Dwivida catches hold of Yupaksha and gives him a blow on his chest. Seeing Yupaksha getting caught by Dwivida, Shonitaksha strikes him on his chest (with his mace). Dwivida shudders for some time but then pulls away his mace. Mainda hits Yupaksha on his chest with his hand. A fight ensues between the two vanaras and demons. Finally Dwivida splits open the face of Shonitaksha with his claws and crushes him on the ground (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 76)

54. Mainda slaying Yupaksha: At the same time Mainda presses Yupaksha with his arms and makes him fall down dead (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 76)

55. Sugreeva slaying Kumbha: Seeing the key generals fall, Kumbha in rage displays his great prowess. He discharges very powerful arrows on Dwivida and makes him fall down throbbing. Seeing his brother Dwivida fall, Mainda takes up a huge rock and hurls it on Kumbha. Kumbha breaks the rock with his arrows and then strikes Mainda with his powerful arrows. Mainda falls on the ground unconscious. Seeing his maternal uncles fall, Angada then rushes towards Kumbha. Kumbha pierces Angada with powerful arrows. Angada remains unshaken and hurls trees and rocks on Kumbha's head. Kumbha, the son of Kumbhakarna breaks those trees and rocks with his arrows. Kumbha now pierces the brows of Angada with his arrows. The blood flowing out covers the eyes of Angada. Covering his eyes with one hand, Angada uproots a large Shala tree with his other hand and hurls on Kumbha. Kumbha chops that tree with his arrows. Angada swoons and falls down depressed. The vanara generals inform Rama who sends Jambavan with an army of vanaras. Jambavan, Sushena and Vegadarshi rushes towards Kumbha, the son of Kumbhakarna. Kumbha attacks them with a flood of arrows. Due to the arrows of Kumbha the vanara generals were unable to proceed towards him. Sugreeva, guarding Angada in rear then rushes headlong towards Kumbha. Sugreeva hurls many trees on Kumbha. Kumbha chops them all with his arrows. Sugreeva remains unperturbed. Then bearing his arrows Sugreeva marches and snatches off the bow of Kumbha and breaks it into pieces. Sugreeva then praises Kumbha for his prowess and challenges him for a duel. Sugreeva tells Kumbha to take some rest to drive off his fatigue before the duel. Kumbha and Sugreeva then enter into a duel of wrestling. Sugreeva tosses up Kumbha and throws him into the sea. Kumbha jumps up and strikes Sugreeva on his chest with his fist, breaking his armour and making blood flow out of his chest. Sugreeva then tightens his fist and makes it forcefully descend on the chest of Kumbha. Kumbha becomes exhausted by that blow and falls down dead. The demons become seized with fear (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 76)

56. Hanuman slaying Nikumbha: Seeing Kumbha dead, Nikumbha becomes enraged and hurls his club on the chest of Hanuman. Hanuman remains unmoved and the club breaks into hundred pieces. Then Hanuman strikes the chest of Nikumbha with a powerful blow of his fist. That blow breaks the armour of Nikumbha and blood flows out. Nikumbha regains his balance and catching Hanuman lifts him off the ground. Hanuman strikes Nikumbha, frees himself from his clutch and throws him on the ground. Then Hanuman descends on his chest and pounds him. Finally catching his head, he tears it off the body (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 77)

57. Ravana sending Makaraksha, Sri Rama slaying him: Ravana then sends Makaraksha, the son of Khara to destroy Rama and Lakshmana. When Makaraksha was going to the battlefield, evil portents appear. The whip falls from the hand of the charioteer. The flag-staff also falls down. The horses become devoid of strength and tears appear on their eyes. A dust storm blows. Makaraksha ignores the portents and marches towards Rama and Lakshmana. In the battlefield, Makaraksha instills fear among the vanaras with the volley of his arrows. Sri Rama comes and faces Makaraksha. Makaraksha discharges a volley of arrows on Sri Rama which Sri Rama breaks with his own arrows. Makaraksha on the other hand breaks the arrows of Sri Rama. Both injures each other. The celestials assemble to see that great battle. Sri Rama breaks the bow of Makaraksha. Then killing the charioteer and the horses, he breaks his chariot. Makaraksha then takes up a spike given to him by Rudra and hurls it on Sri Rama. Sri Rama breaks that spike with his arrows. Makaraksha rushes towards Sri Rama raising his fist. Sri Rama releases the Agni astra. It pierces the heart of Makaraksha and kills him. The demons flee the battlefield out of fear (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 78 to 79)

58. Ravana sending Indrajit: Ravana then sends Indrajit in the battle. Indrajit performs a sacrifice and propitiating the gods marches towards the battlefield. Then Indrajit becomes invisible and showers a volley of arrows on Sri Rama and Lakshmana. Sri Rama and Lakshmana also discharge a volley of arrows but they could not touch Indrajit. Indrajit creates darkness with his mystic spell and remains invisible such that even his sound cannot be heard. Indrajit discharges steel arrows and wounds Sri Rama and Lakshmana. In retalitation, Sri Rama and Lakshmana discharges arrows (in the direction of the incoming arrows) and wound the invisible Indrajit. Indrajit kills the vanaras by hundreds. Lakshmana then seeks permission of Sri Rama to release the Brahma astra and destroy all the demons. Sri Rama says that Lakshmana should not kill all demons but only Indrajit. He should not kill those who are not fighting and taking refuge. Sri Rama says that the petty Indrajit cannot escape from him for long even if he hides in patala or other lokas. Then Sri Rama starts thinking of ways to eliminate Indrajit (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 80)

59. Indrajit killing illusory Sita: Indrajit then enters Lanka and returns to the battlefield creating an illusory image of Sita in his chariot. Hanuman and other vanaras become confounded. Indrajit catches the illusory Sita by her hair and draws out his sword. Sita was crying "Rama Rama" all along. Hanuman rebukes Indrajit telling that by killing Devi Sita, he will meet with death in his hands and go to the terrible hell. Indrajit replies that women belonging to the enemies can be killed. Saying thus, Indrajit kills the illusory Sita with his sword. Then Indrajit laughs loudly and declares that all the effort of the vanaras have gone to vain. The vanaras become dejected and runs away. Hanuman instills courage in them and again makes them fight. Hanuman hurls a large rock towards the chariot of Indrajit. The horses carry the chariot far away and avoid the rock. The vanaras start destroying the army of demons with rocks and trees. Indrajit in anger releases his arrows and kills a large number of vanaras. Hanuman asks the vanaras to retreat since Devi Sita for whom they were fighting has been killed. Hanuman says that they will inform the matter to Sri Rama and Sugreeva and consult them about future actions (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 81 to 82)

60. Indrajit going to Nikumbhila and performing sacrifice: Seeing Hanuman and his army of vanaras retreating, Indrajit goes to Nikumbhila to perform a sacrifice. The sacrificial fire blazes up consuming the oblations of flesh and blood (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 82)

61. Hanuman informing Rama about the death of (illusory) Sita: Hanuman then comes to the presence of Sri Rama and informs him that Indrajit has killed Devi Sita before them in the battle ground. Hearing that news, Sri Rama faints. The vanaras sprinkle water on Sri Rama. Lakshmana laments, embraces Sri Rama and comforts him. Lakshmana expresses his opinion that virtue does not exist; else a noble person like Rama cannot face such misfortune. Lakshmana says that prosperity enhances even in those rooted in unrighteousness and declines even in those rooted in righteousness. Hence the concepts of virtue and vice are useless. Lakshmana tells Sri Rama to show his might over virtue, since virtue operates only when powered by strength. Lakshmana further says that wealth is all-important, since friends gather around the wealthy and relatives stand by him, and he is (even) considered a learned. Everything is obtained from wealth (whether it is religious or worldly). Lakshmana says that now he will completely destroy Lanka (displaying his might) (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 83)

62. Vibhisana revealing the plans of Indrajit: Vibhisana comes there and hears about the killing of the (illusory) Sita by Indrajit. Vibhisana says that this cannot be true. Ravana cannot kill Sita. He did not give up Sita even when begged by well-wishers for the sake of the demon community. Vibhisana says that the Sita who was killed by Indrajit was an illusory Sita. Indrajit wanted to get an intermission in the battle to go to Nikumbhila and perform a sacrifice. After performing that sacrifice he will become difficult to conquer even by celestials. Vibhisana tells Sri Rama to send Lakshmana with him to Nikumbhila and destroy the sacrifice of Indrajit before it ends. Then Indrajit will become susceptible to getting killing. Sri Rama could not first understand the full import of Vibhisana's words (due to his grief over Devi Sita) and tells him to repeat it again. Vibhisana says that Indrajit performed penance and obtained Brahmashira weapon from Lord Brahma. However Lord Brahma also said that if Indrajit fights without offering oblations at Nikumbhila, he will be killed by the enemy. Sri Rama sends Lakshmana with Vibhisana, Hanuman, Jambavan, Angada and accompanied by a large army. Lakshmana goes to the sanctuary of Nikumbhila with the army of vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 84 to 85)

63. Lakshmana slaying Indrajit: Reaching the sanctuary of Nikumbhila, Vibhisana asks Lakshmana to destroy the army of Indrajit through arrows and with the help of the vanaras; thereby destroying the sacrifice of Indrajit. A battle ensues between the demons and the vanaras. Lakshmana showers arrows in the direction of Indrajit. Hearing his army getting destroyed by the vanaras, Indrajit leaves his sacrifice, comes out and ascends his chariot. At that time Hanuman showing his mighty prowess uproots huge trees and hurling them on the demons make them unconscious. Indrajit takes his chariot towards Hanuman and hurls swords, spears and axes on the head of Hanuman. Vibhisana warns Lakshmana that Indrajit is trying to kill Hanuman and tells Lakshmana to release his terrible arrows on Indrajit. Vibhisana shows the place near a banyan tree where Indrajit performs oblations and then becomes invincible. Lakshmana reaches near Indrajit and challenges him. Indrajit rebukes Vibhisana and says that by betraying his own relations he has stooped low. Finally the enemy side will kill him after getting their work done. Vibhisana says that by nature he is virtuous and on the side of righteousness. By renouncing an unrighteous man, one does not incur sins, but on the other hand gains happiness. By his unrighteous acts Ravana will not exist longer. Vibisana tells Indrajit to show his prowess on Lakshmana. Indrajit reminds Lakshmana about his earlier fatal blow on him and making him unconscious. Lakshmana replies that during that time Indrajit adopted the path of thieves by making himself invisible. Indrajit in fury releases many arrows on Lakshmana. In retaliation, Lakshmana releases his arrows on Indrajit. A terrific duel ensues between Lakshmana and Indrajit. Lakshmana makes Indrajit swoon for a moment. Regaining his consciousness, Indrajit strikes Lakshmana, Hanuman and Vibhisana with his arrows and wounds them. Lakshmana makes light of Indrajit's attack and releasing his powerful arrows breaks the armour of Indrajit. Indrajit in retaliation breaks the armour of Lakshmana. Indrajit and Lakshmana continue their terrific duel for a long time each attacking the other with their arrows. Vibhisana then enters the battle and starts attacking the demons. Vibhisana tells the vanaras that Indrajit is the last major hurdle among the demons and after killing him only Ravana will be left. Therefore let them exert themselves to the utmost for eliminating the army of Indrajit. The vanaras attack the demons with renewed vigour. Lakshmana strikes the horses of Indrajit, and then with an arrow called Bhalla kills his charioteer. Seeing his charioteer getting killed Indrajit becomes dejected and drives the chariot himself. Then four vanaras named Pramathi, Sharabha, Rabhasa and Gandhamadana quickly jumps up and pressing the horses of Indrajit with their weight, kills them. Indrajit returns to Lanka and brings another chariot. Indrajit then attacks Lakshmana and Vibhisana again, and creates havoc among the vanaras. The vanaras take refuge in Lakshmana. Lakshmana in fury then tore the bow of Indrajit with his arrows. Indrajit takes up another bow. Lakshmana breaks that too with his arrows. Then Lakshmana releases five arrows on Indrajit which penetrates his body and falls on the ground. Becoming wounded, Indrajit releases powerful arrows on Lakshmana. Lakshmana then pierces all the demons in the battlefield with three arrows each and severes the head of the charioteer of Indrajit with an arrow called Bhalla. Lakshmana then strikes the horses of Indrajit with his arrows. Indrajit retaliates with his arrows. Indrajit strikes all the vanaras with an arrow and then strikes Vibhisana. Vibhisana in anger kills the horses of Indrajit with his mace. Indrajit hurls a javelin towards Vibhisana which Lakshmana breaks it with his arrows. Vibhisana attacks Indrajit with arrows which penetrate his body. The enraged Indrajit releases the Yama astra towards Vibhisana which Lakshmana nullifies with his Kubera astra. Lakshmana releases the Varuna astra which Indrajit nullifies with the Rudra astra. Then Indrajit releases the Agni astra which Lakshmana nullifies with his Surya astra. Indrajit then releases a powerful astra which discharges hammers, swords, axes etc. Lakshmana nullifies it with a Maheshwara astra. Finally Lakshmana fits the very powerful Indra astra on his bow which has never been defeated before. Lakshmana then offers a prayer to the weapon that if Sri Rama is steadfast in virtue, established in truth and is unconquerable, destroy Indrajit. Then Lakshmana stretches his bow and releases his arrow. The arrow severe the head of Indrajit from his trunk. Seeing Indrajit fall, the celestials and the vanaras rejoice. The demons flee from the battlefield. The celestials play music and shower flowers from heaven. Vibhisana and vanaras surround Lakshmana and praise him (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 86 to 90)

63. Sushena treating Lakshmana: Lakshmana who was injured during his battle with Indrajit then comes to Sri Rama and Sugreeva by taking the support of Vibhisana and Hanuman. He was breathing hard. Lakshmana and Vibhisana informs Sri Rama about the slaying of Indrajit. Sri Rama becomes overjoyed saying that it is almost like their final victory. Sri Rama embraces Lakshmana and draws him near his lap. Then he tells Sushena to treat Lakshmana, Vibhisana and the other vanaras. Sushena administers an excellent herb to Lakshmana, inhaling the smell of which Lakshmana becomes healed and his wounds become cured. Then Sushena treats Vibhisana and the other vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 91)

64. Ravana deciding to kill Devi Sita: Hearing the news of the death of Indrajit, Ravana swoons for a long time. Regaining his consciousness, Ravana starts lamenting. Then getting enveloped by fury, Ravana assumes a terrible form. The demons hide themselves away from his gaze. Ravana decides to kill Sita and also go to the battle to kill Rama and Lakshmana wearing his invincible armour obtained as a boon from Lord Brahma. Then Ravana, drawing his sword proceeds towards Ashoka vana where Devi Sita was there. Devi Sita sees Ravana and weeps thinking that he is intent on killing her either due to being refused, or due to the death of his sons, or after eliminating Rama. Seeing Devi Sita weeping, a minister called Suparshva who was of good-natured advises Ravana to desist from this unrighteous act and instead direct his rage towards Rama. Suparshva tells Ravana to march towards the battle field on the day of Amavashya which falls on the next day. Ravana agrees to his advice and returns (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 92)

65. Sri Rama destroying the army of demons: Ravana orders his army generals to march forward in the battlefield and try to kill Rama by encircling him. A terrific battle ensues between the demons and the vanaras. When the demons start striking down the vanaras in large numbers with their weapons, they seek the refuge of Sri Rama. Then Sri Rama enters the battle and starts destroying the demons swiftly with his arrows. The demons could not see Rama, but only saw the destruction of their chariots, elephants, horses and the army. Then confounded with the Gandharva astra of Sri Rama, they see thousands of Ramas on all sides, which again become one Rama. Within three hours Sri Rama destroys the army of demons. Those surviving returns back to Lanka (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 93)

66. The female demons lamenting: The female demons who lost their husbands, brothers and other relations start lamenting. They blame Surpanakha for bringing about this destruction of the demons. They blame Ravana for not realising the strength of Rama even after hearing about the deaths of the powerful Khara, Dushana and Vali in his hands. They blame Ravana for not listening to the good advice of Vibhisana. They blame Ravana for remaining adamant even after the death of the mighty Kumbhakarna and Indrajit. Seeing evil portents they understand that the end of Ravana is near. They recollect a boon of Shiva (who was propitiated by the celestials) that for the destruction of Ravana a woman will be born. They understand that that woman is Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 94)

67. Ravana entering the battlefield: Hearing about the cries of the wives of demons in every house, Ravana becomes enraged and orders Mahodara, Mahaparshva and Virupaksha to start marching to the battlefield immediately. Ravana in anger declares that today he will destroy the vanaras and kill Rama with his powerful arrows. Then he sets off to the battlefield on his chariot. Evil portents appear. The sun loses its splendour. The directions become enveloped in darkness. The birds sound fearful sounds. The earth trembles. Clouds rain blood. Vultures show up. Jackals howl. A mateor falls down from the sky. Ravana's left eye twitches. His left arm throbs. His face becomes pale. His voice becomes choked. The evil portents predict the death of Ravana. Ravana ignores those portents and marches forward towards the battlefield. A terrific battle ensues between the vanaras and the demons. Ravana in anger fell the army of the vanaras who came on his way (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 95)

68. Sugreeva kills Virupaksha: Seeing Ravana destroying the vanaras, Sugreeva goes forward and starts destroying the demons with rocks and trees. Virupaksha rushes forward on an elephant and strikes Sugreeva with his arrows. Sugreeva in anger strikes the face of his elephant with a huge tree. The elephant becomes wounded. Getting down from his elephant, Virupaksha advances towards Sugreeva with a sword in hand. Sugreeva throws a huge rock on Virupaksha. Virupaksha avoids it and strikes Sugreeva with his sword. Sugreeva swoons for a moment. Then regaining his balance he strikes Virupaksha on his chest with his fist. Virupaksha in retaliation, strikes Sugreeva with his sword, brings down his armour and makes him fall. Sugreeva gets up and strikes Virupaksha violently with a slap. Virupaksha escapes the full force of the slap and strikes Sugreeva on his chest with his fist. Seeing Virupaksha avoiding the first slap, Sugreeva slaps him again violently on the temple. Virupaksha falls down and oozing blood, dies (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 96)

69. Sugreeva killing Mahodara: Seeing his army getting destroyed and the fall of Virupaksha, Ravana tells Mahodara to show his prowess and crush the enemy. Mahodara with great energy pierces the arms, feet and thighs of the vanaras with his arrows. Some of the vanaras start fleeing. Some seeks refuge of Sugreeva. Rushing towards Mahodara, Sugreeva hurls a large rock on him. Mahodara breaks the rock with his arrows. Sugreeva then uproots a Sala tree and hurls it on Mahodara. Mahodara chops it with his arrows. Mahodara then injures Sugreeva with his arrows. Sugreeva picks up an iron rod from the ground and kills the horses of Mahodara with it. Mahodara picks up a mace and strikes Sugreeva. Sugreeva strikes the mace with his iron rod but the rod breaks down. Sugreeva then picks up a club from the ground and hurls it on Mahodara. Mahodara hurls his mace and the two strikes each other and breaks down. Sugreeva and Mahodara then wrestle with each other, and strikes each other with fists and slaps. After sometime, getting exhausted, they both pick up a sword and shield from the ground. Mahodara strikes Sugreeva with his sword which hits his shield. Before he lifts the sword again, Sugreeva severes his head with his own sword. The demons become dejected. The celestials rejoice (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 97)

70. Angada killing Mahaparshva: Seeing Mahodara dead, Mahapashva starts creating havoc among the armies of vanaras with his arrows, cutting of the heads and limbs of them. Seeing the vanaras getting tormented, Angada rushes forward. Angada hurls a steel rod on Mahaparshva. Mahaparshva falls down unconscious. Jambavan kills the horses of Mahaparshva and destroys his chariot. Regaining his consciousnes, Mahaparshva again strikes Angada with his arrows. Then he strikes Jambavan and Gavaksha with his arrows. Angada seizes an iron rod and gives a terrible blow to Mahaparshva with it. The iron rod knocks down the bow and arrow from the hand of Mahaparshva as also his helmet. Angada then slaps the temple of Mahaparshva hard with his hand. Mahaparshva in anger takes up a huge axe and hurls it on Angada. Anagada evades the axe and gives a mighty blow on the bosom of Mahaparshva with his fist. That blow breaks the heart of Mahaparshva and he falls down dead on the battlefield (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 98)

71. Ravana fighting with Sri Rama: Knowing that the generals Mahaparshva, Mahodara and Virupaksha have been slain, the furious Ravana takes his chariot towards Rama. Ravana releases the dreadful missile of Lord Brahma called Tamasa which begins to burn the vanaras. The vanaras start fleeing in all directions. Ravana then comes forward and faces Sri Rama and Lakshmana. Lakshmana releases several arrows on Ravana which Ravana breaks down with his own arrows. Ravana then releases a stream of arrows on Sri Rama. Sri Rama breaks the arrows of Ravana with his Bhalla arrows. A great battle continues between Sri Rama and Ravana in which the sky was filled with their arrows. Ravana strikes the forehead of Sri Rama with a row of steel arrows. Bearing those arrows with unperturbed mind, Sri Rama releases the Rudra astra. The armour of Ravana prevented those arrows. Sri Rama releases more arrows which Ravana strikes down with his arrows. Then Ravana releases powerful arrows presided over by the power of Asuras, having the heads of lions, tigers, vultures, jackals, serpents etc. Sri Rama destroys those arrows by employing arrows presided over by Agni. The vanaras rejoice (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 99)

72. Ravana making Lakshmana unconscious: Ravana then releases arrows created by demon Maya having heads of pikes, maces, clubs, mallets, nooses and other weapons. Sri Rama makes those arrows inactive by releasing arrows presided over by the Gandharvas. Ravana then releases the Surya astra with the head of discus which illuminated the sky and the directions. Sri Rama breaks those discuses with his own arrows. Ravana in anger pierces Rama with his arrows. Sri Rama in anger retaliates by piercing Ravana with his arrows. In the meantime Lakshmana joins the battle and releasing his arrows break the flag-staff and bow of Ravana and chops off the head of his charioteer. Vibhisana kills the horses of Ravana. Ravana hurls a spear on Vibhisana. Lakshmana breaks it down with his arrows. Ravana hurls another powerful spear on Vibhisana. To protect Vibhisana, Lakshmana releases several arrows on Ravana. Ravana now turns his anger on Lakshmana and hurls a powerful spear build by Maya. That spear falls on the bosom of Lakshmana and makes him unconscious (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 100)

73. Sri Rama overpowering Ravana: When the vanaras try to extricate the spear from the bosom of Lakshmana, Ravana prevents them with his arrows. Sri Rama himself extricates the spear during the course of the battle and breaks it down. While he was doing so, Ravana pierces him with his arrows. Remaining unperturbed, Sri Rama tells Hanuman and Sugreeva to guard Lakshmana and vows to eliminate Ravana whose end-time has come. Sri Rama says that the world will now witness a battle between Rama and Ravana which they will narrate for time immemorial. Thereafter Sri Rama strikes Ravana with powerful arrows. Ravana in turn releases his arrows on Rama. However, Sri Rama soon overpowers Ravana with a rain his arrows, which tears his asunder. Ravana escapes from the battlefield (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 100)

74. Hanuman bringing herbs from the Himalayas: Seeing Lakshmana lying unconscious in a pool of blood, Sri Rama laments miserably. He says he does not have the energy to fight anymore seeing the condition of Lakshmana. He does not want the kingdom anymore. Relatives can be found but not a brother similar to Lakshmana. As Lakshmana has followed him to the forest, he will now follow Lakshmana to the abode of Yama. Sushena tells Sri Rama that Lakshmana is still alive. He then instructs Hanuman to go to the Oushadhi mountain, which Jambavan has already told earlier, and bring the herbs called Vishalyakarani, Sanjeevakarani and Sandhani. Hanuman goes to the mountain and not being able to identify the herbs, brings the whole mountain peak to Sushena. Sushena takes the herbs, crushes them and administers them to Lakhsmana. Inhaling the smell of the herbs, Lakshmana gets healed and rises up. The vanaras rejoice. Sri Rama embraces him and tells that without Lakshmana his life, victory or Sita does not have any purpose. Lakshmana says that Sri Rama should not speak like that for his sake but keep his words of destroying Ravana as soon as possible (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 101)

75. Indra sending his chariot to Sri Rama: Hearing the words of Lakshmana, Sri Rama starts releasing powerful arrows on Ravana. Ravana from his chariot also starts showering his arrows on Sri Rama. The celestials think that the battle was not equal since Ravana is mounting on a chariot while Sri Rama is fighting from the ground. Indra then sends Matali with his chariot to Sri Rama which was yoked with green horses, and had excellent bows, arrows and other weapons in it. Sri Rama circumambulates the chariot and ascends it to fight with Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 102)

76. Sri Rama injuring Ravana, charioteer carries him away: A terrific battle ensues between them. Ravana starts sending powerful arrows presided over by the demons. Sri Rama neutralizes them with arrows presided over by the gods. Ravana sends arrows presided by serpents which makes poisonous serpents rush towards Sri Rama to kill him. Sri Rama sends arrows presided by Garuda which taking the form of eagles consumes the serpents. Ravana pierces Matali with many arrows. Ravana then breaks the flag-staff of Sri Rama's chariot with his arrows, and then strikes his horses. Seeing the afflictions of Sri Rama in the battle, the celestials, vanaras and Vibhisana feels dejected. The entire nature itself becomes as if afflicted by Ravana. This provokes the anger of Sri Rama. That anger trembles the earth and agitates the rivers and the oceans. The clouds thunder. Other fearful portents also appear. Ravana also becomes afraid. Ravana then takes up a very powerful spear and with his fury makes the earth tremble. Then he hurls that spear on Sri Rama. The spear creates splashes of lightning in the sky. Sri Rama releases his arrows to subdue that spear, but the spear consumes those arrows during its flight. Sri Rama becomes enraged and hurls the spear of Indra which Matali brought in his chariot. That spear neutralises the spear of Ravana. Then Sri Rama pierces the horses of Ravana with his arrows and strikes Ravana in his chest and forehead. Ravana becomes grievously injured by the arrows of Rama. Getting angry he discharges his arrows on Sri Rama which Sri Rama neutralized with his arrows. The terrific battle continues. Sri Rama disparages Ravana for his cowardly act of abducting Devi Sita and says that today he will reap its results. His head will roll down and his body will become the prey for the birds and the beasts. With great rage Sri Rama then releases powerful arrows on Ravana. At the same time the vanaras also start releasing rocks on Ravana. Ravana becomes confused and could not properly take up his weapons. He sinks down in his chariot getting injured. The charioteer carries away Ravana from the battlefield (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 102 to 103)

77. Ravana scolding the charioteer: Ravana scolds the charioteer severely for retreating from the battlefield, thus degrading his fame who does not turn back without destroying the enemies. The charioteer satisfactorily explains the various reasons like removing the fatigue of the warrior as well as the horses. Ravana becomes pleased and gifts an ornament to the charioteer. Then he orders him to drive back the chariot to the battlefield and place it in front of Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 104)

78. Sage Agastya telling the Aditya Hridayam stotra to Sri Rama: Seeing Sri Rama exhausted in the battlefield and Ravana appearing with renewed vigour (after removing his fatigue), sage Agastya appears with the celestials and tells Sri Rama to worship the Sun-god and chant the Aditya Hridayam stotra. Hearing that great stotra, the sorrow of Sri Rama (due to fatigue) vanishes. He sips the water three times and repeats the stotra by looking at the orb of the Sun. Sri Rama feels great joy and vigour. The Sun god tells Sri Rama to hasten the elimination of Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 105)

79. Battle ensuing between Rama and Ravana again: Seeing the chariot of Ravana arriving, Sri Rama tells Matali to drive the chariot with a steady mind and swiftly towards Ravana. By passing the chariot of Ravana on the right, Matali shakes the chariot of Ravana by raising dust with the wheels. Then a great battle ensues between Rama and Ravana. The celestials arrive to see that battle. Then portents appear indicating the victory of Rama and defeat of Ravana. Rain pours blood on the chariot of Ravana. The wind blows forming circles around his chariot from left to right. A group of vultures fly in the same direction as his chariot. Dusk of red colour like Japa flowers overcast Lanka. Meteors fall by making great sound. The ground trembles. Jackals and vultures make inauspicious sound seeing the face of Ravana. The wind blows dust around his chariot making the vision difficult. Hundreds of Sarika birds fight among themselves and fall on his chariot. The horses of Ravana releases spark of fire from their hips and water from their eyes simultaneously. At the same time, good omens appear around Sri Rama indicating his victory. Sri Rama becomes delighted (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 106)

80. Battle between Rama and Ravana continuing: Then a great battle ensues between Rama and Ravana. The vanaras and the demons stand motionless witnessing that battle. Rama and Ravana demonstrate the full range of their prowess. Ravana releases some arrows to destroy the flag-staff of Sri Rama's chariot. But the arrows fall off without doing any damage. Sri Rama in retaliation releases an arrow towards the flag-staff of Ravana's chariot. The arrow breaks down the flag-staff and enters inside the earth. Ravana then targets the horses of Sri Rama's chariot with his arrows. The divine horses remains steady and unperturbed. The enraged Ravana then hurls many arrows along with weapons like maces, clubs, spikes and axes. He also releases many arrows powered by magic. Ravana also releases arrows on the vanara army. Ravana was releasing his weapons desparately, as if he has given up his hope of survival. The great battle continues. Their chariots move swiftly displaying their war movements. Both Rama and Ravana inflicts wound on each other. Sri Rama with four arrows drives back the four horses of Ravana. In retaliation Ravana strikes Sri Rama with his arrows. Sri Rama remains unperturbed. Ravana then directs his arrows towards Matali. Matali also remains unperturbed. Ravana discharges a volley of various weapons. The entire earth trembles due to that battle along with the mountains and the forests. The celestials and the sages become filled with anxiety. The battle continues (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 107)

81. Sri Rama cutting heads of Ravana which appear again: Sri Rama then severes the head of Ravana which falls on the ground. Another similar head appears on Ravana. Sri Rama again chops off that head, which appears again. This continues for hundreds of times. Seeing that Ravana cannot be destroyed, Sri Rama becomes thoughtful. Sri Rama ponders as to why the arrows which killed Khara, Dushana, Kabandha, Viradha and Vali are proving ineffective against Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 107)

82. Battle continuing for seven days without respite: The terrific battle between Rama and Ravana continues for seven days without respite either during the day or during the night (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 107)

83. Sri Rama slaying Ravana: Then Matali tells Sri Rama to release the arrow presided over by Lord Brahma. That arrow was created by Lord Brahma for the celestials to wage victory war. It included the powers of Air, Fire and Sun and was terrific. Sri Rama charges that arrow with mantras and fits it in his bow. The earth along with its beings, tremble. Sri Rama releases that arrow towards Ravana. That arrow pierces the chest of Ravana and tears his heart. Then the arrow penetrates inside the earth, and re-enters the quiver of Sri Rama. The bow and arrow falls from the hands of Ravana, and Ravana falls down dead. The demons flee the battlefield. The vanaras starts rejoicing and proclaiming their victory. The celestials play kettle-drums, shower flowers on Sri Rama and start eulogizing him. After the death of Ravana nature becomes joyful. Sugreeva, Vibhisana, Angada and Lakshmana adores Sri Rama with due ceremony. Sri Rama shines like Indra among the celestials (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 108)

84. Sri Rama directing Vibhisana to perform funeral rites of Ravana: Seeing Ravana lying dead in the battlefield, Vibhisana laments remembering the good qualities and prowess of Ravana. Sri Rama tells him not to lament for Ravana since he has faced a hero's death fighting in a combat for his country. Sri Rama directs Vibhisana to perform funeral rites of Ravana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 109)

85. Consorts of Ravana lamenting: Hearing about the death of Ravana, his consorts come out in the battlefield and starts lamenting. They express wonder that Ravana of great prowess who could not be defeated even by celestials is slayed by a mortal. They express that all this is due to the abduction of Sita and Ravana not listening to the good counsel of Vibhisana and others. Finally they express that all this is due to divine providence. When divine providence bears fruit, no one can avoid it (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 110)

86. Mandodari lamenting: Seeing the dead body of Ravana, Mandodari starts lamenting. She says that Rama is no ordinary mortal but an incarnation of Vishnu. It is not possible for ordinary mortals to destroy Khara and Dushana in Janasthana and come to invade Lanka by building a bridge. Mandodari also indicates that Sita is not an ordinary woman. Ravana has done a great sin by abducting her and as a result he has been consumed by her asceticism. She says that all this has happened due to Ravana not listening to the advice of Vibhisana. The other consorts of Ravana consoles Mandodari (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 111)

87. Vibhisana performing the funeral rites of Ravana: Vibhisana expresses his hesitation to perform the rites of an unrighteous person like Ravana. Sri Rama tells him that even though unrighteous, Ravana was a hero and their enmity has ended with his death. Vibhisana then performs the last rites of Ravana according to Vedic customs and befitting a king (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 111)

88. Sri Rama installing Vibhisana as the king: After the death of Ravana, the celestials recollect the glorious deeds of Sri Rama and returns to their respective abodes. Matali, the charioteer of Indra also returns to heaven. Sri Rama embraces Sugreeva and returns to his camp. Then he directs Lakshmana to consecrate Vibhisana to the throne of Lanka. Lakshmana procures a golden pot and asks the vanaras to bring sea-water. The vanaras quickly procures it. Lakshmana makes Vibhisana sit on the throne and sprinkles sea-water as per the Vedic custom. The demons feel delighted to see Vibhisana as the king. Vibhisana presents various auspicious objects to Rama and Lakshmana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 112)

89. Sri Rama sending message to Devi Sita: Sri Rama then sends Hanuman to Devi Sita with the message that Ravana has been killed and they are well. Then return with the message of Devi Sita. Hanuman enters the Ashoka grove taking the permission of Vibhisana and coming near Devi Sita, salutes her. Hanuman gives her the message of Sri Rama and consoles her saying that she need not be fearful anymore since the kingdom is now under Vibhisana. Devi Sita says that she does not have anything to give in return for conveying this wonderful message. Hanuman says that her words itself is more than gifts of diamonds etc. Hanuman then seeks her permission to kill the cruel demonesses who have tormented her in this place. But Devi Sita says that they were only following the orders of the king and she has forgiven them. Also, her sufferings were due to providence and her own acts committed in the past. Devi Sita says that kindness is to be shown by a noble person even to sinners for there is nobody who has never committed a sin. Hanuman becomes pleased and says that she is the right wife of Sri Rama, and then asks her to give a message in return. Devi Sita says that she longs to see her husband. Hanuman goes back to Sri Rama and narrates about Devi Sita (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 113)

90. Vibhisana bringing Devi Sita to Sri Rama: Sri Rama then tells Vibhisana to bring Devi Sita there after she has bathed and decorated with cosmetics and ornaments. Vibhisana salutes Devi Sita and tells her to come to Rama after adorning herself with jewels and ornaments. Devi Sita adorns herself as instructed by Sri Rama. Vibhisana then brings her to the presence of Sri Rama in a palanquin. Sri Rama becomes joyful and filled with sorrow at the same time. Vibhisana disperses the demons. Sri Rama prevents that and says that the demons are as if his men. Sri Rama then tells that Devi Sita should come to him on foot and not on palanquin. From the face of Sri Rama the vanaras feel that he has become indifferent towards his consort. However, seeing the face of Sri Rama, the mental sorrow of Devi Sita vanishes (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 114)

91. Sri Rama disowning Devi Sita: Sri Rama says that by the killing of Ravana, his promise to destroy the enemy has been fulfilled, and the insult meted out to her has been revenged. The efforts of Hanuman, Sugreeva and Vibhisana have borne fruits. However, all these were not done for her sake but for the glory of his illustrious dynasty. She, on whose character a suspicion has arisen (due to evil looks of Ravana) may leave him and go wherever she likes. She may seek shelter of his brothers or Sugreeva or Vibhisana. Hearing the words of Sri Rama, Devi Sita trembles for a long time (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 115)

92. Devi Sita entering fire: Then she asks Sri Rama why he did not abandon her before while sending Hanuman. Her contact with Ravana is due to her helplessness and fate and not by her own will. Sri Rama has indeed never understood her, even after living with her for a long time. Devi Sita then tells Lakshmana to light up a fire. Then praying to the fire god to protect her if she never swerved from Rama, she enters the fire in the presence of all the people. The celestials and sages witness that great scene. The demons and the vanaras start crying (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 116)

93. Lord Brahma telling Sri Rama about his real nature: When Devi Sita was entering the fire and the vanaras and demons were crying, tears also fill the eyes of Sri Rama. Then gods like Kubera, Yama, Indra, Varuna, Shiva and Brahma approach Sri Rama in their aerial cars. Sri Rama salutes them. They remind Sri Rama of his real nature of supreme divinity and ask him why he is ignoring Devi Sita like a common man. Sri Rama tells them that he thinks himself as a human being by name Rama who is the son of Dasharatha. Sri Rama asks them to tell about his real nature. Lord Brahma then tells that he is Narayana himself who wields the discus. He is Varaha himself with one tusk who conquers the enemies. He is the Akshara Brahman, the Truth, which pervades the (beginning), middle and end of the universe. He is the righteousness of the people. He is Vikvakshena with four arms. He is the wielder of the Sharanga bow. He is Hrishikesha (the Lord of the senses), Purusha (the supreme soul) and Purushottama (the supreme person). He is the wielder of the unconquerable sword. He is Krishna (the bestower of joy). He is of indomitable strength. He presides over the armies of our inner forces. He is Buddhi (Intellect), Kshama (Forbearance) and Dama (Subduer of the senses). He is the beginning and the end of everything. He is Uppendra (Vamana Avatara) and Madhusudana (Destroyer of demon Madhu). He performs the work of Indra and puts an end to the battle (of demons). He is Padmanabha (with Lotus in navel). He is Sharanya (the giver of refuge to all). He is the great Bull with hundred heads and thousand horns representing the soul of the Vedas. He is the creator of the three worlds. He is the giver of shelter to Siddhas and Sadhyas. He is the soul of the sacrifice representing the Vashat. He is the mystic syllable Om. He is greater than the greatest. No one can know his beginning or end. He manifests in all beings, in cows and in brahmanas; in sky, mountains as well as in rivers. He has thousand feet and hundred heads, and bearing Sri, sustain the world. He is the Sesha bearing the three worlds consisting of devas, gandharvas and the danavas. His heart is Brahma, his tongue is Saraswati, and the hairs of his body, the various devas. Closing of his eyes is night and opening of his eyes is day. He is the purifying soul of the Vedas. Without him it does not exist. The entire Cosmos is his body. Earth is his firmness. Fire is his anger. Moon is his calmness. He bears the Srivatsa. He has covered the three worlds with his strides (as Vamana Avatara) during the sacrifice of king Bali. Sita is Lakshmi and he is Vishnu of dark hue. For the purpose of slaying Ravana, he has assumed a human form. Now his purpose has been fulfilled (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 117)

94. Fire god restoring Devi Sita to Sri Rama: Then the Fire god comes out of the fire with Sita in his arms. He says that she is completely pure in character. He tells Sri Rama to take her back. Sri Rama says that he knew that Sita is pure and the fire ordeal was only to convince the three worlds. It is not possible for Ravana to obtain Sita who is like a blazing fire. Sita is not separate from him as sunlight is not separate from the Sun. Then getting united with Devi Sita, Sri Rama experienced great joy (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 118)

95. King Dasaratha meeting Sri Rama: Then Lord Shiva tells Sri Rama that king Dasharatha who has gone to the abode of Indra has come to see him in an aerial car. Sri Rama and Lakshmana salute their father. Dasharatha tells Sri Rama that he is not happy with him even in heaven. Today, seeing and embracing him, his sorrows are gone. Dasharatha then tells that his forest exile of fourteen years is over and he has fulfilled the purpose of the gods by killing Ravana. He should now return to Ayodhya and bring joy to Bharata and Kaushalya. Then becoming consecrated as the king, establish Dharma in the world. Sri Rama tells Dasharatha to extend his grace to Bharata and Kaikeyi since he earlier decided to disown them. King Dasharatha agreed. Then Dasharatha said to Lakshmana that he has accrued great merit by serving Rama who is the Supreme person. Dasharatha tells Sita that she should not cherish any anger towards Rama for making her undergo the fire ordeal, since it was only to demonstrate her purity. Rama is indeed her deity. Thus saying Dasharatha goes back to the abode of Indra (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 119)

96. Sri Rama requesting Indra to restore the dead vanaras: Then Indra tells Sri Rama to ask for a boon since their appearance should not go in vain. Sri Rama asks Indra to restore all the vanaras who were killed in the battle for his sake, so that they can get united with their families. Also wherever those vanaras live let there be fruits and water in the trees even during the off-season. Indra bestows the boon even though it was very difficult to grant. The vanaras who were dead, rise up with good health and rejoices with surprise (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 120)



17. Return from Lanka to Ayodhya:

Sri Rama 1. Sri Rama returning to Ayodhya in Pushpaka Vimana: Vibhisana requests Sri Rama to stay for some more days and accept his hospitality in Lanka. However, Sri Rama declines saying that he is intent on seeing Bharata and his mothers who has previously come to Chitrakuta to take him back. Vibhisana then arranges the Pushpaka Vimana for Sri Rama. Sri Rama becomes amazed to see that beautiful aerial car (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 121)

2. Sri Rama requesting Vibhisana to reward the vanaras: Vibhisana then humbly asks Sri Rama what else he can do for him. Sri Rama requests Vibhisana to reward the vanaras with wealth and precious stones since they had risked their lives to get him the kingdom. Vibhisana rewards the vanaras generously (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 122)

3. Vanaras and Vibhisana wanting to see the coronation of Sri Rama: When Sri Rama was about to take leave in his Pushpaka Vimana, the vanaras and Vibhisana requests him to take them to Ayodhya so that they can witness his coronation. Sri Rama gladly accepts their requests and asks them to mount the Pushpaka Vimana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 122)

4. Sri Rama showing Devi Sita the memorable places: While travelling with Devi Sita in the Pushpaka Vimana, Sri Rama shows her the memorable places during his forest exile. Sri Rama shows the city of Lanka established on the Trikuta mountain which was built by Vishwakarma. Sri Rama shows the battlefield and the places where the various demons were killed (Ravana, Kumbhakarna, Prahasta, Dhumraksha, Vidyunmali, Indrajit, Vikata, Virupaksha, Mahaparshva, Mahodara, Akampana, Trishira, Atikaya, Devantaka, Narantaka, Yuddonmatta, Matta, Nikumbha, Kumbha, Vajradamshtra, Damshtra, Makaraksha, Akampana, Shonitaksha, Yupaksa, Prajangha, Vidyujjihva, Yajnashatru, Suptaghna, Suryashatru, Brahmashatru). Sri Rama shows the place where Ravana was killed and his thousand wives along with Mandodari lamented. Sri Rama shows the place where after crossing the ocean, they spent a night. Sri Rama shows the bridge called Nala Setu which was built across the sea. Sri Rama shows the sea which they crossed for coming to Lanka. Sri Rama shows the mountain Mainaka which rose to give rest to Hanuman. Sri Rama shows the place within the sea where the army of vanaras were stationed. Sri Rama shows the place called Setubandha where Vibhisana first came to meet him. Sri Rama shows the beautiful Kishkindha, the city of Sugreeva where Vali was killed. Seeing the city of Kishkindha, Devi Sita wishes to take Tara and the other wives of Sugreeva to Ayodhya. Granting her wish, Sri Rama halts the Pushpaka Vimana and takes the wives of the vanaras. Sri Rama then shows the Rishyamukha Parvata where he first met Sugreeva and enters into friendship with him. Sri Rama shows the Pampa Sarovar where he lamented for Devi Sita and met Shabari. Sri Rama shows the place where demon Kabandha was killed. Sri Rama shows the tree under which Jatayu was lying being wounded by Ravana. Sri Rama shows Panchavati, the place where demons Khara, Dushana and Trishira were killed and the leaf-hut where they stayed, and from where Ravana abducted her. Sri Rama shows the hermitages of sages Suteekshna and Sharabhanga. Sri Rama shows the hermitage of sage Atri and Anasuya. Sri Rama shows the place where demon Viradha was killed. Sri Rama shows mountain Chitrakuta where Bharata came to see him. Sri Rama shows river Yamuna and the hermitage of sage Bharadwaja. Sri Rama shows river Ganga (which meets river Yamuna at Prayaga). Sri Rama shows Shringaverapura, the kingdom of Guha. Sri Rama shows river Sarayu and the city of Ayodhya. Sri Rama asks Devi Sita to salute Ayodhya (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 123)

5. Sri Rama halting at the hermitage of sage Bharadwaja: Sri Rama halts at the hermitage of sage Bharadwaja while returning to Ayodhya after his forest exile. Sri Rama asks about the welfare of Ayodhya. Bharadwaja assures him that all is well. Then the sage says that by virtue of his asceticism he knows everything that happened during his forest exile. Sri Rama asks the boon that the route from there to Ayodhya be filled with fruits even in the off-season (so that the vanaras can consume it). Sage Bharadwaja grants the boon (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 124)

6. Sri Rama sending Hanuman to inform Guha and Bharata: Sri Rama sends Hanuman to Shringaverapura to communicate his welfare to Guha, the king of the Nishadas. Then, tells Hanuman to ask Guha about Bharata and the way to Ayodhya. Thereafter going to Ayodhya, to enquire about the welfare of Bharata and inform him about the different incidents that happened during his forest exile, and that Rama is coming to him with Vibhisana and Sugreeva. Thereafter tells Hanuman to find out the intention of Bharata from his facial expression. If Bharata wants to rule the entire kingdom, let him have it. As commanded by Sri Rama, Hanuman assumes a human form and leaves for Ayodhya. Crossing Prayaga, the confluence of rivers Ganga and Yamuna, Hanuman reaches Shringaverapura. He meets Guha and gives the news of Sri Rama. On the way, Hanuman sees Ramatirtha, and rivers Valukini, Varuthi, Gomati, Bhima as well as forest of Sala trees. Then reaching Nandigrama, Hanuman saw Bharata living in a hermitage like an ascetic, and ruling the kingdom placing the wooden sandals of Sri Rama. Hanuman informs him about the arrival of Sri Rama. Bharata faints in joy. Then regaining his balance, Bharata embraces Hanuman. Bharata says that in return for this news he will give him a hundred thousand cows, hundred villages and sixteen girls of good conduct as wives. Bharata then tells Hanuman to narrate the story of Sri Rama in the forest. Hanuman narrates all the incidents that happened in the forest and tells him that Sri Rama is currently residing in the hermitage of sage Bharadwaja. Bharata was overjoyed to hear about Sri Rama (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 125 to 126)

7. Sri Rama returning to Nandigrama: Bharata commands Shatrughna to make arrangements for receiving Sri Rama at Ayodhya. Shatrughna levels the ground from Nandigrama to Ayodhya and sprinkles parched grains and flowers over it. He decorates Ayodhya with beautiful flags as also the buildings on the way. He sprinkles fragrant colours, garlands and flowers on the royal highway. All the mothers proceed to Nandigrama. Bharata makes arrangement to give a royal reception to Sri Rama at Nandigrama with royal parasols, soldiers, brahmanas, musicians etc. Sri Rama arrives there in the Pushpaka Vimana along with Devi Sita, Lakshmana, Vibhisana, Sugreeva and others. Bharata salutes Sri Rama. Sri Rama embraces him. Then Bharata receives Devi Sita and Lakshmana. Bharata embraces the vanara chiefs like Sugreeva, Jambavan, Angada and others. The vanaras change their forms as humans and enquires about the welfare of Bharata. Bharata embraces Sugreeva and tells him that he is the fifth brother. Then Bharata greets Vibhisana. Thereafter, Shatrughna offers his salutations to Sri Rama. Sri Rama offers his salutations to his mothers and the royal priests. The citizens of Ayodhya shouts the victory of Sri Rama. Bharata places the sandals of Sri Rama before his feet and says that he is returning the sovereignty of Sri Rama today. Bharata says that as a keeper he has enhanced the treasury, granary and other possessions ten-fold. Seeing the affection of Bharata for his brother, Vibhisana and the vanaras shed tears. Then Sri Rama reaches the hermitage of Bharata in the Pushpaka Vimana and tells the aerial car to return to Kubera (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 127)




Coronation of Sri Rama (Pattabhishekam):


Sri Rama getting coronated as the king of Ayodhya 1. Bharata praying Sri Rama to accept the kingdom: Bharata then prays to Sri Rama to accept the kingdom which he was managing as his keeper till the real master arrives. Sri Rama agrees to take back the kingdom (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

2. Adorning Sri Rama: Bharata then arranges for skilled barbers to remove the matted hairs of Sri Rama. Shatrughna arranges for the royal adornment of Sri Rama (bathing, smearing the body with sandal pastes of various colours, adorning with garlands and royal clothing). The mothers of Sri Rama adorn Devi Sita. Kaushalya adorns the wives of the monkeys (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

3. Sri Rama going around the city: Sumantra comes with the royal. Sri Rama ascends the chariot to see the city. Bharata takes the reins and drives the chariot. Shatrughna holds the royal parasol over the head of Sri Rama. Lakshmana fans him. Vibhisana stands nearby with a white fan. The celestials praise Sri Rama from the firmament. Sugreeva and the other vanaras follow Sri Rama on thousands of elephants. Sri Rama sees the city of Ayodhya accompanied by the sounds of conches, kettle-drums, other musical instruments and songs. The citizens of Ayodhya greet Sri Rama. Sri Rama reciprocates. Many citizens follow Sri Rama. Sri Rama narrates the achivements of vanaras to the ministers. The citizens of Ayodhya become astonished. Sri Rama also tells about Vibhisana (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

4. Sri Rama entering the royal palace: Sri Rama then enters the royal palace. He salutes his mothers; Kaushalya, Sumitra and Kaikeyi. Then he tells Bharata to arrange for the stay of Sugreeva in that palace. Bharata takes Sugreeva inside the palace (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

5. Vanaras fetching sea-water for coronation: Bharata requests Sugreeva to make arrangements for the coronation of Sri Rama. Sugreeva gives four golden jars to four leaders of vanaras and tells them to fetch sea-waters from the four directions during the dawn of the next day. Jambavan, Hanuman, Vegadarshi and Rishabha bring water from five hundred rivers. Sushena brings water from the eastern sea. Rishabha brings water from the southern sea covered with stems of red sandalwood tree. Gavaya brings water from the western sea. Nala brings water from the northern sea. Shatrughna informs Vasistha that waters for the coronation of Sri Rama has been fetched by the vanaras (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

6. Sage Vasistha performing the coronation of Sri Rama: Sage Vasistha then makes Sri Rama and Devi Sita sit on the royal throne. Vasistha, Vamadeva, Jabali, Kashyapa, Katyayana, Suyagna, Gautama and Vijaya consecrate Sri Rama with fragrant waters. The priests, virgins, ministers, warriors and merchants sprinkle the sap of medicinal herbs on Sri Rama. The celestials too sprinkle sap on Sri Raam from the firmament. Vasistha then places the royal crown on the head of Sri Rama which was created by Lord Brahma during the coronation of Manu. Shatrughna holds the white royal parasol over the head of Sri Rama. Sugreeva and Vibhisana hold the royal white whisks. Vayudeva presents Sri Rama with a golden garland studded with gems. The celestial musicians play music and the apsaras dance. On that auspicious occasion the trees become laden with fruits and flowers (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

7. Sri Rama bestowing gifts: Sri Rama gives brahmanas hundred thousand horses and cows along with hundred bulls. Sri Rama also gives thirty crores of gold coins along with costly jewels and clothing. Sri Rama gifts Sugreeva a beautiful garland studded with gems. Sri Rama gifts Angada a beautiful bracelet studded with cat's eye gem (vaidurya) for the upper arms. Sri Rama gives Devi Sita a beautiful pearl necklace studded with gems along with clothings and ornaments. Devi Sita wishes to give the pearl necklace to Hanuman. Understanding her gesture, Sri Rama tells her to give it to one with whom she is pleased and who is endowed with qualities like Tejas (Sharpness and Splendour), Dhriti (Firmness), Yashas (Glory, Fame), Daksha (Dexterity), Samarthya (Capability), Vinaya (Modesty), Naya (Wisdom, Prudence), Paurusha (Manliness), Vikrama (Prowess), Buddhi (Intelligence) etc. Devi Sita gifts that necklace to Hanuman. Sri Rama then gifts the other vanaras and Vibhisana suitably (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

8. Vanaras and Vibhisana returning: Honoured by Sri Rama, the vanaras return to Kishkindha. Vibhisana returns to Lanka (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).

9. Sri Rama establishing the rule of Dharma: Sri Rama asks Lakshmana to take the position of the crown prince. Lakshmana declines. Sri Rama then makes Bharata the crown prince. Sri Rama performs several yagnas like Paundarika, Ashvamedha and Vajapeya to propitiate the gods. Sri Rama rules for ten thousand years and performs a hundred Ashwamedha yagnas. Lakshmana serves as a companion during the rule of Sri Rama. The kingdom becomes free of grief - no widows lamenting, no untimely death, no fear of wild animals, no terrible diseases and no thieves and robbers existing. Looking at Sri Rama, everyone becomes intent on virtue and their talks become centred around "Rama, Rama, Rama". The trees become filled with flowers and fruits. Clouds rain on time. The four classes of people becomes intent on performing their respective duties. By listening to the deeds of Sri Rama, may all be filled with joy (Valmiki Ramayana - Yuddha Kanda - 128).






Bharatavarsha - The Land of Gods and Sages:

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Meditation on Earth and Life: >>



Om, May there be Peace in Heaven,
May there be Peace in the Sky,
May there be Peace in the Earth,

(Shanti Mantra of Upanishad)


Preserve Nature,
And Nature will preserve Us,
Simplify Life,
And help Nature thrive,
Plant Trees,
And make our planet Green.

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Green Message: The Evergreen Messages of Spirituality, Sanskrit and Nature

Last updated on Jun-2021

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