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Sacred Trees

1. Panchavati Trees:

  1. Vata (Ficus benghalensis, Banyan)
  2. Ashvattha (Ficus religiosa, Peepal)
  3. Bilva (Aegle marmelos, Bengal Quince)
  4. Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica, Indian Gooseberry, Amla)
  5. Ashoka (Saraca asoca, Ashok)
  6. Udumbara (Ficus racemosa, Cluster Fig, Gular)
  7. Nimba (Azadirachta indica, Neem)
  8. Shami (Prosopis spicigera, Indian Mesquite)

2. Kalpa Vriksha:

  1. Vata (Ficus benghalensis, Banyan)
  2. Ashvattha (Ficus religiosa, Peepal)
  3. Udumbara (Ficus racemosa, Cluster Fig, Gular)
  4. Aamra (Mangifera indica, Mango)
  5. Gorakshi (Adansonia digitata, Baobab)
  6. Narikela (Cocos nucifera, Coconut)
  7. Parijata (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Night Jasmine)

3. Trees associated with Deities:

(1) Lord Ganesha:

  1. Kadali (Musa paradisiaca, Plaintain, Banana)
    • Lord Ganesha: Navapatrika is made of Kadali tree during Navaratri festival.
  2. Durva (Cynodon dactylon, Bermuda grass)
  3. Kapittha (Limonia acidissima, Wood Apple)
  4. Jambu (Syzygium cumini, Java Plum, Rose Apple)

(2) Lord Brahma:

  1. Ashvattha (Ficus religiosa, Peepal): Tree of Eternal Life
    • Hindu Trinity: The Hindu Trinity Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are believed to dwell in the Peepal tree.

(3) Lord Vishnu:

  1. Ashvattha (Ficus religiosa, Peepal): Tree of Eternal Life
    • Hindu Trinity: The Hindu Trinity Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are believed to dwell in the Peepal tree.
    • Adi Jagannatha temple: Lord Vishnu appeared before sages Pullavar, Kalavar and Kanuvar in the form of a Peepal tree [Adi Jagannatha temple, Thirupullani, Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu].
  2. Udumbara (Ficus racemosa, Cluster Fig, Gular)
    • Lord Vishnu: Udumbara tree is associated with Lord Vishnu and is one of the names of Lord Vishnu.
  3. Padma (Nelumbo nucifera, Lotus)
    • Lord Vishnu: Lord Vishnu is known as Padma-Nabha, from whose navel a Lotus emerged on which Lord Brahma sits [Shantakaram Bhujagasayanam sloka].
  4. Tulasi (Ocimum tenuiflorum, Holy Basil)
    • Lord Vishnu: Lord Vishnu is worshipped with Tulasi leaves. The leaves of the Tulasi plant is placed on the head of Lord Vishnu [Tulasi Stotram - verse 8].
  5. Kusha (Imperata cylindrica, Cotton-wool grass , Darbha)
    • Lord Varaha: In the city of Barhismati, the hairs of Lord Varaha fell and turned into evergreen Kusha and Kasha grasses [Srimad Bhagavatam 3.22.29 - 30].
  6. Amlika (Tamarindus indica, Tamarind)
    • Nammalvar: Tamarind tree is the sacred tree of Alwarthirunagari under which Nammalvar meditated for 16 years.
  7. Badari (Ziziphus mauritiana, Indian Jujube)
    • Badrinath: The famous pilgrimage Badrinath is named after Badari trees.

(4) Lord Varaha:

  1. Kusha (Imperata cylindrica, Cotton-wool grass , Darbha)
    • Lord Varaha: In the city of Barhismati, the hairs of Lord Varaha fell and turned into evergreen Kusha and Kasha grasses [Srimad Bhagavatam 3.22.29 - 30].

(5) Lord Rama:

  1. Vata (Ficus benghalensis, Banyan): Tree of Immortality
    • Shyam Vat: On the way from Prayag to Chitrakoot there is a Banyan tree known as Shyam Vat which is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana.
    • Panchavati: In Nashik there is a group of five Banyan trees known as Panchavati where Sri Rama, Lakshmana and Devi Sita stayed during their forest exile.
  2. Kusha (Imperata cylindrica, Cotton-wool grass , Darbha)
    • Lord Rama: Lord Rama lied down on the Darbha (Kusha) grass for three days seeking help from the ocean god [Adi Jagannatha temple, Thirupullani, Ramanathapuram district, Tamil Nadu].
  3. Badari (Ziziphus mauritiana, Indian Jujube)
    • Lord Rama: Sabari fed Badari fruits to Sri Rama when Sri Rama visited her hermitage during forest exile.
  4. Ingudi (Balanites aegyptiaca, Desert Date, Hingkot)
    • Lord Rama: Sri Rama spent a night under an Ingudi tree on the bank of river Ganga at Sringaverapura during forest exile [Description of Ganga - verse 28].

(6) Lord Krishna:

  1. Vata (Ficus benghalensis, Banyan): Tree of Immortality
    • Child Krishna: In the deluge of illusion, sage Markandeya saw a Banyan tree and a beautiful child lying on a Banyan leaf, placing a toe in his mouth and sucking it [Srimad Bhagavatam 12.9.20 - 21] [Bala Mukundashtakam - verse 7].
    • Vamsi Vat: In Vrindavan there is an ancient Banyan tree known as Vamsi Vat where Sri Krishna performed His Rasa Leelas.
    • Kalpa Bata: In the premises of the Puri Jagannath temple there is an ancient Banyan tree known as Kalpa Bata.
  2. Ashvattha (Ficus religiosa, Peepal): Tree of Eternal Life
    • Sri Krishna: Sri Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita that among the trees I am the Peepal.
  3. Bakula (Mimusops elengi, Indian Medaller)
    • Sri Krishna: Bakula tree is specially associated with Sri Krishna.
    • Siddha Bakula Math: Sri Haridasa Thakur chanted the names of Sri Krishna several lakhs of times under a Bakula tree in Siddha Bakula [Siddha Bakula Math, Puri district, Odisha].
  4. Kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba, Bur Flower)
    • Sri Krishna: Sri Krishna is described as playing flute under Kadamba tree. Also kept the stolen clothes of gopis on a Kadamba tree.
  5. Parijata (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Night Jasmine)
    • Sri Krishna: Parijata tree is associated with Sri Krishna Who brought it from heaven.
  6. Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna, Arjun)
    • Child Krishna: Child Krishna uprooted a pair of Arjuna trees when His mother tied Him to a mortar [Bala Mukundashtakam - verse 7].
  7. Amlika (Tamarindus indica, Tamarind)
    • Imli Tala: Sri Krishna sat under a Tamarind tree absorbed in the intense feelings of separation from Radharani [Imli Tala temple, Vrindavana, Mathura district, Uttar Pradesh].
  8. Nimba (Azadirachta indica, Neem)
    • Sri Chaitanya: Sri Chaitanya was born under a Neem tree, hence he is called as Nimai [Mayapur Yogapitha, Nadia district, West Bengal].

(7) Lord Shiva:

  1. Vata (Ficus benghalensis, Banyan): Tree of Immortality
    • Lord Dakshinamurthy: Lord Dakshinamurthy is depicted as sitting under a Banyan tree and instructing His disciples through His meditative silence [Dakshinamurthy Stotram - Dhyana slokas].
    • Thiruvalangadu: A forest of Banyan trees with a syambhu linga of Lord Shiva [Thiruvalangadu Vadaranyeswarar temple, Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu].
  2. Ashvattha (Ficus religiosa, Peepal): Tree of Eternal Life
    • Hindu Trinity: The Hindu Trinity Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva are believed to dwell in the Peepal tree.
    • Perur Patteeswarar temple: Lord Shiva performed Tandava dance under a Peepal tree [Perur Patteeswarar temple, Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu].
  3. Bilva (Aegle marmelos, Bengal Quince)
    • Lord Shiva: Bilva tree is a form of Lord Shiva [Glory of Bilva - Shiva Purana - Vidyeshwara Samhita 22].
    • Lord Shiva: Devi Sati worshipped Lord Shiva with Bilva leaves and fruits during Nanda Vrata [Flowers for Nanda Vrata - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sati Khanda 15.19].
  4. Rudraksha (Elaeocarpus sphaericus, Rudraksh)
    • Lord Shiva: Rudraksha trees emerged from the tear drops of Lord Shiva during penance [Glory of Rudraksha - Shiva Purana - Vidyeshwara Samhita 25].
  5. Arka (Calotropis procera, Swallow Wort)
  6. Jati (Jasminum grandiflorum, Royal Jasmine)
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is mentally worshipped with Jati, Champaka and Bilva patra [Shiva Manasa Puja - verse 1].
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is worshipped with Kusha, Apamarga, Karpura, Jati, Champaka, Patala, Karavira, Sita, Mallika, Kamala and Utpala [Flowers for worshipping Shiva - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sristi Khanda 11.56 and 11.57].
  7. Champaka (Magnolia champaca, Champa)
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is mentally worshipped with Jati, Champaka and Bilva patra [Shiva Manasa Puja - verse 1].
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is worshipped with Kusha, Apamarga, Karpura, Jati, Champaka, Patala, Karavira, Sita, Mallika, Kamala and Utpala [Flowers for worshipping Shiva - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sristi Khanda 11.56 and 11.57].
  8. Paatali (Stereospermum suaveolens, Trumpet Flower)
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is worshipped with Kusha, Apamarga, Karpura, Jati, Champaka, Patala, Karavira, Sita, Mallika, Kamala and Utpala [Flowers for worshipping Shiva - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sristi Khanda 11.56 and 11.57].
  9. Karavira (Nerium indicum, Oleander)
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is worshipped with Kusha, Apamarga, Karpura, Jati, Champaka, Patala, Karavira, Sita, Mallika, Kamala and Utpala [Flowers for worshipping Shiva - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sristi Khanda 11.56 and 11.57].
  10. Mallika (Jasminum sambac, Arabian Jasmine)
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is worshipped with Kusha, Apamarga, Karpura, Jati, Champaka, Patala, Karavira, Sita, Mallika, Kamala and Utpala [Flowers for worshipping Shiva - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sristi Khanda 11.56 and 11.57].
  11. Padma (Nelumbo nucifera, Lotus)
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is worshipped with Kusha, Apamarga, Karpura, Jati, Champaka, Patala, Karavira, Sita, Mallika, Kamala and Utpala [Flowers for worshipping Shiva - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sristi Khanda 11.56 and 11.57].
  12. Durva (Cynodon dactylon, Bermuda grass)
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is worshipped with Durva grass during Pashupata Vrata [Shiva Purana - Vayaviya Samhita - Purva Bhaga 33.35].
    • Puja: Durva grass is offered to various deities during puja.
  13. Kusha (Imperata cylindrica, Cotton-wool grass , Darbha)
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is worshipped with Kusha, Apamarga, Karpura, Jati, Champaka, Patala, Karavira, Sita, Mallika, Kamala and Utpala [Flowers for worshipping Shiva - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sristi Khanda 11.56 and 11.57].
  14. Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera, Prickly Chaff Flower)
    • Lord Shiva: Lord Shiva is worshipped with Kusha, Apamarga, Karpura, Jati, Champaka, Patala, Karavira, Sita, Mallika, Kamala and Utpala [Flowers for worshipping Shiva - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sristi Khanda 11.56 and 11.57].
  15. Palasha (Butea monosperma, Flame of the Forest)
    • Lord Shiva: Devi Sati worshipped Lord Shiva with Palasha and Damana flowers on Chaitra Shukla Chaturdasi during Nanda Vrata [Flowers for Nanda Vrata - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sati Khanda 15.20].
  16. Damanaka (Artemisia pallens, Dhavanam)
    • Lord Shiva: Devi Sati worshipped Lord Shiva with Palasha and Damana flowers on Chaitra Shukla Chaturdasi during Nanda Vrata [Flowers for Nanda Vrata - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sati Khanda 15.20].
  17. Brihati (Solanum indicum, Indian Nightshade)
    • Lord Shiva: Devi Sati worshipped Lord Shiva with Brihati flowers on Jyestha Poornima and Asadha Shukla Chaturdasi during Nanda Vrata [Flowers for Nanda Vrata - Shiva Purana - Rudra Samhita - Sati Khanda 15.22 and 15.23].

(8) Lord Dattatreya:

  1. Udumbara (Ficus racemosa, Cluster Fig, Gular)
    • Lord Dattatreya: Udumbara tree is specially associated with Lord Dattatreya and is mentioned in the text Guru Charitra.

(9) Devi Parvati:

  1. Nimba (Azadirachta indica, Neem)
    • Devi Parvati: Neem tree is associated with Devi or Ambal.
  2. Kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba, Bur Flower)
    • Devi Parvati: Devi Parvati loves to live in the forest of Kadamba trees and is therefore called Kadamba Vana Vasini [Mahishasura Mardini Stotram - verse 3].
    • Madurai Meenakshi temple: Kadamba is the sacred tree of the Meenakshi temple of Madurai [Meenakshi temple - Madurai district, Tamil Nadu]
  3. Aamra (Mangifera indica, Mango): Tree of Prosperity
  4. Jambu (Syzygium cumini, Java Plum, Rose Apple)
  5. Punnaga (Calophyllum inophyllum, Alexandrian Laurel)
    • Devi Parvati: Devi Parvati performed penance under a Punnai tree as a peahen in Mylapore [Kapaleeshwarar temple, Mylapore, Chennai district, Tamil Nadu].
  6. Mallika (Jasminum sambac, Arabian Jasmine)
    • Devi Parvati: Devi Parvati is worshipped with Mallika, Malati, Champa, Japa, Bandhuka and Pankaja flowers during Akshaya Tritiya [Flowers for Akshaya Tritiya - Shiva Purana - Uma Samhita 51.59 - 51.61].
  7. Malati (Aganosma heynei, Malatilata)
    • Devi Parvati: Devi Parvati is worshipped with Mallika, Malati, Champa, Japa, Bandhuka and Pankaja flowers during Akshaya Tritiya [Flowers for Akshaya Tritiya - Shiva Purana - Uma Samhita 51.59 - 51.61].
  8. Champaka (Magnolia champaca, Champa)
    • Devi Parvati: Devi Parvati is worshipped with Mallika, Malati, Champa, Japa, Bandhuka and Pankaja flowers during Akshaya Tritiya [Flowers for Akshaya Tritiya - Shiva Purana - Uma Samhita 51.59 - 51.61].
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is worshipped with Mandara, Karaja, Ashoka, Champaka, Karavira, Malati and Brahma flowers as well as Bilva leaves [Flowers for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].
  9. Japa (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibiscus)
    • Devi Parvati: Devi Parvati is worshipped with Mallika, Malati, Champa, Japa, Bandhuka and Pankaja flowers during Akshaya Tritiya [Flowers for Akshaya Tritiya - Shiva Purana - Uma Samhita 51.59 - 51.61].
  10. Padma (Nelumbo nucifera, Lotus)
    • Devi Parvati: Devi Parvati is worshipped with Mallika, Malati, Champa, Japa, Bandhuka and Pankaja flowers during Akshaya Tritiya [Flowers for Akshaya Tritiya - Shiva Purana - Uma Samhita 51.59 - 51.61].
  11. Mandara (Erythrina variegata, Indian Coral)
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is worshipped with Mandara, Karaja, Ashoka, Champaka, Karavira, Malati and Brahma flowers as well as Bilva leaves [Flowers for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].
  12. Ashoka (Saraca asoca, Ashok)
    • Devi Parvati: Devi Parvati planted a sapling of Ashoka tree and tended it like Her son [Devi Parvati about Trees - Matsya Purana 154.506].
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is worshipped with Mandara, Karaja, Ashoka, Champaka, Karavira, Malati and Brahma flowers as well as Bilva leaves [Flowers for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].
  13. Karavira (Nerium indicum, Oleander)
    • Devi Parvati: Devi Parvati is worshipped with red Karavira flowers during Tritiya of Kartika, Margashirsha, Pausha, Magha and Phalguna [Flowers for Tritiya - Shiva Purana - Uma Samhita 51.80 - 51.81].
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is worshipped with Mandara, Karaja, Ashoka, Champaka, Karavira, Malati and Brahma flowers as well as Bilva leaves [Flowers for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].
  14. Bilva (Aegle marmelos, Bengal Quince)
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is worshipped with Mandara, Karaja, Ashoka, Champaka, Karavira, Malati and Brahma flowers as well as Bilva leaves [Flowers for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is offered Argha with Narikela, Matulunga, Dadimi, Kadali, Naranga, Panasa and Purna (Bilva) fruits. [Fruits for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].
  15. Narikela (Cocos nucifera, Coconut)
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is offered Argha with Narikela, Matulunga, Dadimi, Kadali, Naranga, Panasa and Purna (Bilva) fruits. [Fruits for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].
  16. Dadima (Punica granatum, Pomegranate)
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is offered Argha with Narikela, Matulunga, Dadimi, Kadali, Naranga, Panasa and Purna (Bilva) fruits. [Fruits for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].
  17. Kadali (Musa paradisiaca, Plaintain, Banana)
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is offered Argha with Narikela, Matulunga, Dadimi, Kadali, Naranga, Panasa and Purna (Bilva) fruits. [Fruits for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].
  18. Naranga (Citrus Sinesis, Orange)
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is offered Argha with Narikela, Matulunga, Dadimi, Kadali, Naranga, Panasa and Purna (Bilva) fruits. [Fruits for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].
  19. Panasa (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Jackfruit)
    • Devi Parvati: During Navaratri the Devi is offered Argha with Narikela, Matulunga, Dadimi, Kadali, Naranga, Panasa and Purna (Bilva) fruits. [Fruits for Navaratri - Devi Bhagavatam - Skanda 3 - 26].

(10) Bhoomi Devi:

  1. Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica, Indian Gooseberry, Amla)
    • Bhoomi Devi: Amalaki is considered as Dhatri, the Mother Earth who sustains all.

(11) Devi Tulasi:

  1. Tulasi (Ocimum tenuiflorum, Holy Basil)
    • Devi Tulasi: Tulasi plant is an embodiment of Devi Tulasi [Tulasi Stotram].

(12) Devi Sita:

  1. Ashoka (Saraca asoca, Ashok)
    • Devi Sita: Devi Sita sat under an Ashoka tree while in captivity in Lanka.

(13) Radharani:

  1. Champaka (Magnolia champaca, Champa)
    • Radharani: Radharani wore Champaka flowers on her hair [Yamunashtakam - verse 7].

4. Trees associated with Festivals:

  1. Vata (Ficus benghalensis, Banyan)
    • Vata Savitri Vrata: Festival on Jyaistha Amavasya when married women tie threads around Banyan trees praying for long lives of their husbands [Vata Savitri Vrata].
  2. Ashvattha (Ficus religiosa, Peepal)
    • Somavati Amavashya: During Somavati Amavashya married women worship the Peepal tree and circumambulate it praying for the long lives of their husbands.
  3. Bakula (Mimusops elengi, Indian Medaller)
    • Bakula Amavasya: Bakula Amavasya is celebrated on Pausha Amavasya in Odisha.
  4. Kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba, Bur Flower)
    • Kadambotsava: Festival associated with Kadamba tree.
    • Karam-Kadamba: Karam-Kadamba is the harvest festival of Tulu people.
  5. Kadali (Musa paradisiaca, Plaintain, Banana)
    • Kadali Vrata: Festival associated with Kadali.



Bharatavarsha - The Land of Gods and Sages:

1. Stotras
2. Scriptures
3. Pilgrimages
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5. Saints: Ramakrishna - Vivekananda - Ramana
6. Sadhana
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Meditation on Earth - The Vedic way: >>



Om, May there be Peace in Heaven,
May there be Peace in the Sky,
May there be Peace in the Earth,

(Shanti Mantra of Upanishad)


Preserve Nature,
And Nature will preserve Us,
Simplify Life,
And help Nature thrive,
Plant Trees,
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Green Message: The Evergreen Messages of Spirituality, Sanskrit and Nature

Last updated on Sep-2019

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