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Saints:

Century Saints Philosophy & Composition Pilgrimage
6th century BCE Sri Mahavira
Sri Mahavira
(599-527 BCE)
(date uncertain)

• Born in Vaishali, Bihar
• 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism

• Propagated the philosophy of Jainism based on Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya and Brahmacharya.
6th century BCE Sri Gautama Buddha
Sri Gautama Buddha
(563-483 BCE)
(date uncertain)

• Born in Kapilvastu, Nepal

Sri Gautama Buddha
Founder of Buddhism

• Preached the Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Paths.

• Founded the Sangha of Buddhist monks.
Bodh Gaya, Bihar: Attained Enlightenment under the famous Bodhi tree.
5th century BCE
4th century BCE
3rd century BCE
2nd century BCE
1st century BCE
1st century CE
2nd century CE
3rd century CE
4th century CE
5th century CE Nayanmars
Nayanmars
(5th-10th century)

Tamil Nadu
Shiva Bhakti

• Lives recorded in book Periya Puranam.

• Collection of their hymns are known as Thevarams.
Shiva-Parvati

• 275 Shiva temples they praised are known as Paadal Petra Shiva Sthalams.
6th century CE Nayanmars Nayanmars continued
(5th-10th century)
Shiva-Parvati
6th century CE Alvars
Alvars
(6th-9th century)

Tamil Nadu

Andal
Vishnu Bhakti

• Collection of their hymns are known as Divya Prabandhams.
Lakshmi-Narayana

• 108 Vishnu temples they praised are known as Divya Desams.
7th century CE Nayanmars Nayanmars continued
(5th-10th century)
Shiva-Parvati
7th century CE Alvars Alvars continued
(6th-9th century)
Lakshmi-Narayana
8th century CE Nayanmars Nayanmars continued
(5th-10th century)
Shiva-Parvati
8th century CE Alvars Alvars continued
(6th-9th century)
Lakshmi-Narayana
8th century CE Sri Adi Shakancharya
Sri Adi Shankaracharya
(788-820 CE)
(date uncertain)

• Born in Kaladi, Kerala

Sri Adi Shankaracharya
• Exponent of Advaita philosophy (Brahman).

• Wrote commentaries on Brahma Sutras, principal Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita.

• Composed sanskrit stotras on various deities.
Devi Sharada

• Founded four Mathas around the four corners of India.

• Believed to be the organiser of Dashanami monastic order and founder of Shanmata tradition of worship.
9th century CE Nayanmars Nayanmars continued
(5th-10th century)
Shiva-Parvati
9th century CE Alvars Alvars continued
(6th-9th century)
Lakshmi-Narayana
10th century CE Nayanmars Nayanmars continued
(5th-10th century)
Shiva-Parvati
11th century CE Sri Ramanujacharya
Sri Ramanujacharya
(1017-1137 CE)

• Born in Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu
Vishnu Bhakti

• Exponent of Vishistadvaita philosophy.

• Wrote commentaries on Brahma Sutras (known as Sri Bhashya) and Bhagavad Gita.

• Composed several texts on Sri Vaishnavism and organised the method of worship.
Sri Ranganathaswamy

Srirangam
13th century CE Sri Madhavacharya
Sri Madhavacharya
(1199-1278 CE)

• Born in Udupi, Karnataka
Krishna Bhakti

• Exponent of Dvaita philosophy.

• Wrote commentaries on Brahma Sutras, Bhagavad Gita and several Upanishads.
Sri Krishna

• Founded Krishna temple at Udupi and several other Mathas
13th century CE Sri Namdev
Sri Namdev
(1270-1350 CE)

• Born in Hingoli district, Maharashtra
Krishna Bhakti

• Spent his life in devotion to Lord Vithoba of Pandharpur.

• Proponent of Bhagavad Dharma and purity of living.
Sri Panduranga

13th century CE Sri Jnaneshwar or Dyaneshwar
Sri Jnaneshwar or Dyaneshwar
(1275-1296 CE)

• Born in Apegaon, Aurangabad, Maharashtra

Sant Jnaneshwar
• Philosopher and Yogi of Nath tradition.

• Composed Bhavartha Deepika (a commentary on Bhagavad Gita, popularly known as Dnyaneshwari) and Amrutanubhav.
14th century CE
15th century CE Sri Surdas
Sri Surdas
(1478-1573 CE)

Sihi, Faridabad, Haryana

• Sri Vallabhacharya was his guru
Krishna Bhakti.

• Composed Sur Sagar, which is a collection of thousands of melodious songs on Sri Krishna, only around 8000 extant now.
Sri Krishna

15th century CE Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
(1486-1534 CE)

• Born in Nabadwip, West Bengal
Krishna Bhakti

• Pillar of Gaudiya Vaishnavism

• Popularised the chanting of Hare Krishna Maha Mantra.

• Composed Siksastakam (eight devotional prayers on Sri Krishna) in sanskrit.
Sri Krishna

16th century CE Sri Meerabai
Sri Meerabai
(1497-1557 CE)

• Born in Merta, Rajasthan

• Guru Ravidass was her guru
Krishna Bhakti

• Composed around 1300 Krishna Bhajans.
Sri Krishna

16th century CE Sri Vallabhacharya
Sri Vallabhacharya
(1497-1531 CE)

• Born in Champaram, Chattisgarh
Krishna Bhakti

• Founder of Shuddha Advaita philosophy.

• Wrote commentaries on Brahma Sutras (known as Anubhasya) and Srimad Bhagavad Mahapurana.

• Composed several texts on Krishna Bhakti.
Srinathji

• Believed to have got the vision of Srinathji (seven year old Krishna) whose temple is in Nathadwara, Rajasthan
16th century CE Sri Tulsidas
Sri Tulsidas
(1497/1532-1623 CE)

• Born in Rajapur, Chitrakoot district, Uttar Pradesh
Rama Bhakti

• Composed Ramcharitmanas, several Dohas and other texts.

Hanuman Chalisa is attributed to him.
Sri Rama

• Founded the Sankat Mochan Hanuman temple at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
16th century CE Sri Eknath
Sri Eknath
(1533-1599 CE)

• Born in Aurangabad district, Maharastra

• Sri Janardhanaswami was his guru
Krishna Bhakti

Marathi saint

• Revived Dnyaneshwari.

• Composed Eknath Bhagavatam, a commentary on Srimad Bhagavatam.
Sri Panduranga

17th century CE
18th century CE Sri Ramprasad Sen
Sri Ramprasad Sen
(1723 - 1775 CE)

• Born in Halishahar, North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal
Kali Bhakti

• Performed his sadhana invoking Mother Kali in a Panchavati grove, often sitting on a Panchamundi Asana near the place of the present Ramprasad Vita Kali temple of Halishahar.

• Composed many Bhajans on Mother Kali.
Devi Kali

Ramprasad Vita Kali temple of Halishahar
18th century CE Sri Kamalakanta Bhattacharya
Sri Kamalakanta Bhattacharya
(1769 - 1821 CE)

• Born in Bardhaman district, West Bengal
Kali Bhakti

• Invoked Mother Kali sitting on a Panchamundi Asana near the place of the present Kamalakanta Kalibari of Bardhaman.

• Composed many Bhajans on Mother Kali.
Devi Kali

Kamalakanta Kalibari of Bardhaman
19th century CE Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
(1836-1886 CE)

• Born in Kamarpukur, West Bengal

Sri Ramakrishna
Kali Bhakti
Rama Bhakti
Krishna Bhakti
Shiva Bhakti
Advaita Vedanta (Brahman)
• Practised Christanity and
Islam.

• Praying to God with intense yearning in heart in order to realize Him or Her.

• God can be realized through any path if the devotee has this intense yearning in heart.

• Vision of Serving Man as God.

• Sayings recorded as Ramakrishna Kathamrita in Bengali, which is translated in English as Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna.
Devi Kali

Kamarpukur in West Bengal (birth place),

Dakshineswar Kali temple (place of sadhana),

Belur Math (headquarters of Ramakrishna Maths and Mission) in the outskirts of Kolkata.

• There are many Ramakrishna Maths and Missions throughout the world.
18th century CE Sri Bamakhepa (Bamacharan Chattopadhyay)
Sri Bamakhepa
(1837 - 1911 CE)

• Born in Birbhum district, West Bengal
Tara Bhakti

• Invoked Mother Tara sitting on a Panchamundi Asana at the Tarapith Maha Samshan ground (Cremation ground), performing sadhana under the guidance of Kailashpati Baba and Mokshadananda.
Devi Tara of Tarapith

Devi Tara of Tarapith of Birbhum district, West Bengal
19th century CE Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
(1863-1902 CE)

• Born in Kolkata, West Bengal

• Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa was his Guru
Character Building, i.e. building the right tendencies of mind using will power, discrimination and high ideal for the welfare of many.

Practical Vedanta, i.e. the vision of Advaita Vedanta applied in practical life to raise the masses, regenerate India and for welfare of many. In this context comes his precept of Serving Man as God.

Acceptance of all paths as a means to realize God.

• Four Yogas - Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Raja Yoga for a balanced development of human being and God realization.

• Lectures, Compositions, Letters etc recorded in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda.

Sayings of Swami Vivekananda
Shiva-Parvati

Birthplace in Kolkata

Belur Math (headquarters of Ramakrishna Maths and Mission) in the outskirts of Kolkata

Vivekananda House in Chennai

• Many Ramakrishna Maths and Missions throughout the world
19th century CE Sri Ramana Maharshi
Sri Ramana Maharshi
(1879-1950 CE)

• Born in Thirucuzhi, near Madurai

• Realized the Self through a death experience during boyhood.

• Suggested Self-Enquiry, or the direct enquiry within oneself to find the source from where the "I" rises.

• Sayings recorded in many books including Who am I, Day by Day with Bhagavan, Talks etc.

• Famous song Arunachala Akshara Manimalai (Arunachala Shiva, Arunachala Shiva)

Sayings of Ramana Maharshi
Arunachala Mountain

Thiruvannamalai where Ramana Ashram is situated.
20th century CE


Meditation on Earth and Life: >>



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May there be Peace in the Sky,
May there be Peace in the Earth,

(Shanti Mantra of Upanishad)


Preserve Nature,
And Nature will preserve Us,
Simplify Life,
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Last updated on Nov-2020

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